A survey of beak morphological abnormalities was performed on 6,201 chickens (egg-laying hens and chickens for meat production belonging to 25 flocks) brought to a poultry processing plant. The observed abnormalities varied among flocks with occurrence rates ranging from 0.48 to 46.67%. The occurrence was high in flocks subjected to beak trimming and varied significantly according to chicken breed, with the highest rates of abnormalities in a certain chicken breed. The most widely observed abnormalities were: 1) uneven growth of the upper and lower mandibles, mostly with elongation of the lower mandible (accounting for 64.8% of all abnormalities); 2) misalignment of the upper and lower mandibles, causing lateral deviation or crossing (16.3%); 3) sharp or jagged deformities of the mandible tips (10.1%); 4) permanent open beak, a deformity in which the beak did not close completely even when closed (5.8%); and 5) formation of tubercular swellings at the tips of the upper or lower mandibles (3.1%). This is the first report on the occurrence of beak abnormalities in beak-trimmed poultry in Japan.
First-generation cephalosporins such as cefazolin (CEZ) have been widely used for mastitis treatment in dairy cattle. However, the use of antibiotics results in the presence of antibiotic residues in milk, which is used for human consumption. Nisin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis, has been used as a broad-spectrum food preservative for over 50 years. Therefore, a combination of CEZ and nisin A might provide an extended activity spectrum against mastitis pathogens and reduce the antibiotic dose for mastitis treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the combined effect of CEZ and nisin A against mastitis pathogens using the checkerboard and time-kill assays. In the checkerboard assay, the CEZ-nisin A combination exhibited a synergistic effect against Staphylococcus aureus (n=20/20) and Enterococcus faecalis (n=13/18), and meanwhile exhibited a mostly additive effect against Staphylococcus intermedius (n=12/20), Streptococcus agalactiae (n=10/10), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=18/18), and Escherichia coli (n=14/18). There were no indifferent or antagonistic effects between CEZ and nisin A. In the time-kill assay, the CEZ-nisin A combination at 0.5 × or 1 × minimum inhibitory concentration exhibited synergistic reduction of bacterial growth by over 3 log10 colony forming units per ml relative to that observed with either antimicrobial substance alone. These results suggest that the CEZ-nisin A combination can be used for developing an intramammary infusion for mastitis treatment, with lower antibiotic concentrations than normal.
Myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD) causes an imbalance of sympathovagal activity resulted in poor cardiac outcomes. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have been revealed cardioprotective effect in patients with heart diseases. This study aimed to 1) compare the heart rate variability (HRV) between asymptomatic MMVD and healthy dogs and 2) assess long-term effects of sildenafil and enalapril on time- and frequency-domains analyzes. Thirty-four dogs with MMVD stage B1 or B2 and thirteen healthy dogs were recruited into the study. MMVD dogs were divided into 3 subgroups: control (n=13), sildenafil (n=12) and enalapril (n=9). HRV was analyzed from 1-hr Holter recording at baseline (D0) in all dogs and at 30, 90 and 180 days after treatment. The results showed that MMVD dogs had significant higher heart rate (HR), systemic blood pressures, the ratio of low to high frequency (LF/HF) and had significant decreased standard deviation of all normal to normal RR intervals (SDNN) and the percentage of the number of normal-to-normal sinus RR intervals with differences >50 msec computed over the entire recording (pNN50) when compared with healthy dogs (P<0.05). Neither time nor frequency domain parameters were different among subgroups of MMVD dogs at D0. After treatment with sildenafil for 90 days, both time- and frequency-domain parameters were significantly increased when compared with control and enalapril groups. This study demonstrated that sildenafil improves HRV in asymptomatic MMVD dogs suggesting that sildenafil should be used in the MMVD dogs to restore the sympathovagal balance.
A 9-year-old, spayed female Chihuahua was presented with a 1-week history of lethargy and anorexia. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography found bilateral adrenal masses without metastasis. Serum cortisol levels that were sampled before and after an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test were within reference ranges. Lethargy and anorexia completely resolved after short-term fluid therapy; the clinical signs did not occur for approximately 8 months until her sudden death. A postmortem examination revealed bilateral adrenocortical carcinomas and liver metastasis. Primary adrenocortical carcinomas developed in the dog met the definition of bilateral incidental adrenal gland masses (IAGMs). This is the first case report to demonstrate based on histological identification that adrenocortical carcinomas cause bilateral IAGMs in dogs.
Canine anaplasmosis is regarded as an infection by Anaplasma platys rather than zoonotic Anaplasma phagocytophilum in subtropical areas based on the assumption that the common dog tick species is Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which transmits E. canis and presumably A. platys. We investigated asymptomatic dogs and dog ticks from 16 communities in Nantou County, Taiwan to identify common dog tick species and to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. Of total 175 canine blood samples and 315 ticks, including 306 R. sanguineus and 9 Haemaphysalis hystricis, 15 dogs and 3 R. sanguineus ticks were positive for E. canis, while 47 dogs and 71 R. sanguineus ticks were positive for A. platys, via nested PCR for 16S rDNA and DNA sequencing of selected positive amplicons. However, among the dogs and ticks that were positive to A. platys 16S rDNA, only 20 dogs and 11 ticks were positive to nested PCR for A. platys groEL gene. These results revealed the importance of searching for novel Anaplasma spp. closely related to A. platys in dogs and ticks. Seropositivity to a commercial immunochromatographic test SNAP 4Dx Anaplasma sp. was not significantly associated with PCR positivity for A. platys but with infestation by ticks carrying A. platys (P<0.05). Accordingly, R. sanguineus may be involved in transmission of A. platys but may not act as a reservoir of E. canis and PCR results for 16S rDNA could be a problematic diagnostic index for A. platys infection.
A 7-year-old female domestic rabbit suffered from labored respiration, poor appetite, mild anemia and thrombocytopenia. Radioscopic examination revealed masses in multiple locations including the intrapleural cavity and spleen. Forty-three days after the first visit to a private veterinary clinic, the rabbit died of severe respiratory distress. Microscopically, all of the masses were composed of round to polygonal neoplastic cells with distinct cell borders that were arranged in a sheet pattern. Multinucleated giant neoplastic cells were often observed. Some neoplastic cells had phagocytozed one or more erythrocytes. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, CD204, Iba-1 and lysozyme, but not CD163. Based on the morphological and immunohistochemical findings, this case was diagnosed as disseminated histiocytic sarcoma with hemophagocytosis.
Cisplatin (CDDP) is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used in the treatment of lymphomas and solid malignancies. However, its clinical usage is limited by its severe side effects in the kidneys. Glomerular and tubular injuries in the kidneys commonly progress to interstitial fibrosis and, ultimately, the end stage of renal failure. We previously reported that 3-acetyl-5-methyltetronic acid (AMT) had inhibitory effects on rat renal vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) in vitro and also suppressed mesangial cell proliferation and, consequently, the formation of fibrosis via the vitamin K-dependent activation of the growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6)/Axl pathway in anti-Thy-1 glomerulonephritis (Thy-1 GN) in rats. In the present study, we demonstrated that AMT alleviated the progression of renal fibrosis in CDDP-treated rats. The repeated intravenous administration of AMT for 28 days dose-dependently suppressed increases in plasma urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine levels as well as creatinine clearance in CDDP-treated rats. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive cells and ameliorated the extracellular matrix accumulation of collagen III, indicating an antifibrotic effect. In conclusion, our toxicological and histopathological results demonstrated quantitatively the pharmacological inhibitory effects of AMT on the progression of renal fibrosis in CDDP-treated rats.
Tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), a receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3, includes the alternatively spliced three isoforms specifically in rats. Each isoform, full length TrkB (TrkB FL), truncated TrkB type-1 (TrkB T1) and type-2 (TrkB T2), seems to mediate diverse cellular function. Some studies suggest that TrkB plays a key role in both neural and non-neural systems. In the present study, we examined mRNA and protein expression profile of three TrkB isoforms in normal adult rat multiple tissues. TrkB FL mRNA and protein were both highly expressed exclusively in brain. While TrkB T1 mRNA was highly expressed exclusively in brain, glycosylated TrkB T1 protein was expressed in brain and heart. TrkB T2 mRNA level in brain was the highest. In brain, TrkB FL mRNA expression was higher in cerebral cortex, but lower in brainstem. TrkB T1 mRNA expression was higher in hypothalamus, but lower in cerebellum. TrkB T2 mRNA expression was higher in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, but lower in brainstem. The present study for the first time clarified diverse distribution of three TrkB isoforms in rat multiple tissues and could serve as a useful resource for understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of mammals including human via comparing the expression pattern of TrkB isoforms.
This study compared the effects of postoperative pain and inflammation reaction after preventive laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy (LAG) and incisional gastropexy (IG) in 10 clinically normal Beagles. Surgical time, incision length, visual analog scale (VAS) score, University of Melbourne Pain Scale (UMPS) score, and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma cortisol (COR), and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were evaluated. The VAS and UMPS scores and COR and IL-6 levels were recorded at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hr after surgery. CRP level was recorded at 12, 24 and 48 hr after surgery. The VAS and UMPS scores showed no significant intergroup differences. Compared to IG, LAG had significantly lower surgical time (45 ± 9.91 min vs 64 ± 5.30 min; P<0.05), incision length (46 ± 8.21 mm vs 129 ± 19.49 mm; P<0.05), CRP level (12 hr after surgery; 4.58 ± 1.58 mg/dl vs 12.4 ± 1.34 mg/dl; P<0.01), and COR level (1 hr after surgery; 10.79 ± 3.07 µg/dl vs 15.9 ± 3.77 µg/dl; P<0.05). IL-6 levels showed no significant intergroup differences at any time point. However, LAG resulted in lower IL-6 levels than did IG at all postoperative time points. Neither procedure resulted in significant surgical complications. LAG produced lower surgical stress than did IG, suggesting that LAG is a safe, minimally invasive, and highly useful technique for preventing canine gastric dilatation-volvulus. Nevertheless, since this study used experimental models, its usefulness should be evaluated in future cases.
The present study aimed to investigate the technical feasibility of percutaneous endoscopic mini-hemilaminectomy via a uniportal approach, and to evaluate the possibility of decompression and endoscopic examination of the thoracic and lumbar spinal canals in small dogs during such procedures. Fresh canine cadavers of mixed-breed dogs (n=7) were used in this study. Following injection of a barium and agarose mixture (BA-gel) to stimulate intervertebral disc herniation, percutaneous endoscopic mini-hemilaminectomy was performed using a lateral approach to the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. BA-gel was removed to decompress the spinal cord using an elevator and rongeurs after mini-hemilaminectomy. Pre and post-operative computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained to evaluate surgical outcomes. Intra-operative complications, incision length, and procedure time were recorded. All procedures were completed with clear visualization of the spinal cord and floor of the spinal canal. The mean total operating time was 58.00 ± 18.06 min. Lengths of incision were under 1 cm in all dogs. Intra-operative complications included iatrogenic nerve root injuries caused by the micro-rongeur in two dogs. CT imaging revealed that removal of BA-gel resulted in sufficient spinal cord decompression. Our findings indicated that percutaneous endoscopic thoracolumbar mini-hemilaminectomy is feasible for spinal cord decompression and allows for adequate observation of the spinal canal. Thus, this technique may be an alternative surgical option for treatment of thoracolumbar disk disease in dogs.
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are abundant and readily obtained, and have been studied for their clinical applicability in regenerative medicine. Some surface antigens have been identified as markers of different ADSC subpopulations in mice and humans. However, it is unclear whether functionally distinct subpopulations exist in dogs. To address this issue, we evaluated aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity—a widely used stem cell marker in mice and humans—by flow cytometry. Approximately 20% of bulk ADSCs showed high ALDH activity. Compared to cells with low activity (ALDHLo), the high-activity (ALDHHi) subpopulation exhibited a higher capacity for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. This is the first report of distinct ADSC subpopulations in dogs that differ in terms of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential.
In this study, the prevalence, effectiveness of diagnosis, and treatment based on vaginal discharge score (VDS) of clinical endometritis in cattle were evaluated. To detect clinical endometritis and classify its severity, vaginoscopy was performed during 21 to 60 days postpartum in 164 Holstein cows consisting of 229 lactations. Groups were defined using the 4-point VDS scale. Study groups included the following: non-endometritis (VDS=0; no/clear mucus; NEM group; n=168); mild endometritis, no treatment (VDS=1; mucus containing flecks of white/off-white pus; NTR group; n=30); and severe endometritis, treated with PGF2α (VDS≥2; discharge containing <50% pus; and VDS=3; discharge containing >50% pus, and fluid or uterine horn asymmetry; TEM group; n=31). Cows treated with PGF2α that did not recover (VDS≥1, n=5) received intrauterine procaine penicillin and streptomycin. Prevalence of clinical endometritis (VDS≥1) was 26.6%. The NTR group required significantly more artificial inseminations per pregnancy than NEM and TEM groups (2.8 ± 1.8 vs 2.0 ± 1.3, 1.9 ± 0.8, P<0.05). In survival analysis, the proportion of non-pregnant cows was higher in the NTR group compared to the NEM (P=0.012) and TEM (P=0.076) groups. In the TEM group, calving to first artificial insemination interval tended to be higher in cows treated 41 to 60 days postpartum than cows treated 29 to 40 days postpartum (97.2 ± 27.1 vs 74.4 ± 19.7, P=0.084). Our study suggests that cows with VDS=1 may require treatment to recover fertility. Diagnosis and treatment of clinical endometritis based on a VDS grading system may improve dairy herd reproductive performance.
The bovine MHC (BoLA) class II DRB3 alleles are associated with polyclonal expansion of lymphocytes caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle. To examine whether the DRB3*0902 allele, one of the resistance-associated alleles, is associated with the proviral load, we measured BLV proviral load of BLV-infected cattle and clarified their DRB3 alleles. Fifty-seven animals with DRB3*0902 were identified out of 835 BLV-infected cattle and had significantly lower proviral load (P<0.000001) compared with the rest of the infected animals, in both Japanese Black and Holstein cattle. This result strongly indicates that the BoLA class II DRA/DRB3*0902 molecule plays an important immunological role in suppressing viral replication, resulting in resistance to the disease progression.
A 19-year-old captive male waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) exhibited traumatic pericarditis at necropsy. The animal weighed 182 kg at necropsy and revealed no remarkable findings in external observation. Severe pericardial adhesions with fibrosis, hepato-diaphragmatic adhesions, straw-colored ascites and hepatosplenomegaly were observed upon examining the internal organs. Perforations made by a 12-cm-long sharp-ended bamboo twig were detected in the reticulum, diaphragm, pericardium, lung and liver. Trueperella pyogenes was identified in pericardial fluid. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of traumatic reticulopericarditis caused by a sharp-ended bamboo twig in a captive waterbuck.
A 27-year-old captive female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) died suddenly. Necropsy findings showed severe hemopericardium, the right coronary artery arose from the sinus of the pulmonary trunk, and the aortic valve was composed of two semilunar cusps. Coronary artery branches emerging from the epicardium were dilated and tortuous. Pampiniform vascular plexus formation existed along the adventitia from the coronal sulcus to the pulmonary trunk. This is the first report of multiple congenital cardiac malformations with an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery and a bicuspid aortic valve in a marine mammal.
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