This empirical study is a revised version of Miyauchi (2019a), analyzing the same data using different analytic methods. This study compares Bandura’s (1997) traditional sources of self-efficacy information, vicarious experiences (VE) and verbal persuasion (VP) with more personalized types of information sources, cognitive self-modeling (CSM) and self-persuasion (SP), which derive directly from learners’ own cognitive appraisals. The results showed that the influence of self-dependent types of information (CSM and SP) was greater when forming Japanese high school students’ speaking self-efficacy than that of traditional information sources dependent on others (VE and VP). This tendency was more noticeable with in-class self-efficacy as compared with out-of-class self-efficacy. Considering the results of this study, future implications are discussed.
This study sought to examine the role of metacognitive knowledge and working memory (WM) in second language listening comprehension. The study also investigated the extent to which this role varies across L2 proficiency levels. The results showed that both metacognitive knowledge and WM capacity correlated positively with L2 listening comprehension, and these two constructs accounted for approximately 23% of the variance in L2 listening comprehension. While metacognitive knowledge accounted for approximately 20% of the variance in L2 listening comprehension for the higher-proficiency listeners, approximately 11% of the variance in L2 listening comprehension was accounted for by WM capacity in the case of the lower-proficiency group. Moreover, WM was more strongly associated with metacognitive knowledge in the higher proficiency group than the lower proficiency group. The findings provide evidence for variation in the role of metacognitive knowledge and WM in L2 listening comprehension across proficiency levels.
This study aims to research how long students spend their learning time on five English skills, grammar and vocabulary, reading, listening, speaking, and writing in class and outside of class, and how to improve teachers’ lesson plans and students’ learning abilities regarding the five skills. After finishing English courses, a total of 119 first-year high school students answered the questionnaire. The students then were divided into three groups of beginner, intermediate and advanced levels, and it was found that the beginner and intermediate level students spent most of their time on grammar and vocabulary followed closely by reading both in class and outside class. Only advanced level students in class spent more time on reading than grammar and vocabulary. It was concluded that teachers need to set more opportunities for students to practice the other skills, especially listening and speaking.