Numerous studies on the World Council of Churches (WCC) have been conducted since its formation; however, most lack consideration of the issue of women’s participation. This paper focuses on the contributions of remarkable female leaders who are often overlooked in the history of the 20th-century ecumenical movement. The first chapter introduces Henriette Visser’t Hooft’s 1934 correspondence with Karl Barth and the WCC’s first assembly in Amsterdam in 1948 where the Commission on the Role of Women in the Church was created. The second chapter describes the study on The Community of Women and Men in the Church (1978-1982) that was launched after the ecumenical consultation on “sexism in the 1970s” in West Berlin. The third chapter explores several attempts made to empower women and free churches from violence again women, including team visits called “Living Letter,” during the Ecumenical Decade of Churches in Solidarity with Women campaign (1988-1998).
The debate concerning ‘Eternal Punishment’ developed in the 1830s, with most of the debates occurring between 1840 and 1914. Among the various theological problems with which churchmen struggled, ‘Eternal Punishment’ was a primary issue.
During the debates very many clergymen such as Edward Bouverie Pusey, Francis Paget, and Frederic William Farrar had written treatises on ‘Eternal Punishment’ or ‘Everlasting Punishment’.
While Charles Lutwidge Dodgson [Lewis Carroll] was a fellow of the University of Oxford, the discussions continued throughout Britain. He procured ammunition for the argument and participated by publishing his essay ‘Eternal Punishment’. In the paper, he examined the term ‘αἰών’, and he concluded the original Greek word αἰών did not connote ‘eternal’ or ‘everlasting’, but ‘limited time’.
In this essay, I shall outline the Eternal Punishment debate as it appears in some theological papers and tracts, and I intend to look at how to evaluate Dodgson’s opinion that ‘Eternal Punishment’ could not be signified as ‘eternal’.