Zhen Qi Hypoglycemic Capsules (ZQHC) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine containing medical activities by ougi (Astragalus membranaceus) and ousei (Polygonatum rhizome). Although ZQHC has been traditionally utilized as an anti-diabetic medicine in China, there is no evidence. Therefore, this study investigated the beneficial effects of ZQHC against diabetes using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by biochemical and morphological methods. Eight-week old male Fisher strain rats were intraperitoneally injected with STZ (50 mg/kg of B.W.) to induce diabetes and were fed ad lib feeding with normal diet containing 4% ZQHC for 30 days. Blood and urine samples were collected for biochemical analysis, and liver and pancreas samples were prepared for morphological analysis. Values of blood glucose, AST and ALT of ZQHC oral administrated diabetic rats were lower than those of diabetic rats without administration. Morphological analysis revealed that ZQHC induced sustainment of insulin secreted β cells survival and suppression of hepatocellular fat droplet accumulation. These results suggested that oral administration of ZQHC has anti-diabetic activities those were mainly associated with improvement of liver metabolism.
The middle meningeal artery (MMA) can play an important role in the surgical revascularization. However, the MMA can be easily injured if it passes through a bony canal. We investigated the morphological and histological features of the bony canal to improve surgical results. Materials and Methods: Fifty adult dry skulls were investigated. The length of the bony canal and the distance from the orbital rim to the bony canal were measured. Additionally, 28 cadaveric heads were examined histologically. Results: Sixty-three bony canals were found in 43 skulls. The mean length of bony canals was 9.2 mm, and the mean distance from the orbital rim was 24.0 mm. The bony canal ran mainly from the sphenoid bone (69.8%) to the parietal bone (73.0%). Histologically, both sides of the meningeal grooves gradually closed the distance, and formed the bony canal. The MMA inside the bony canal was enveloped with collagen tissues, divided into branches, and was accompanied by the vein. Conclusions: The bony canal is located around the pterion and is formed during bone growth. The MMA is covered with collagen tissues inside the bony canal. It is possible to safely expose and preserve the MMA during craniotomy with careful drilling.
The localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is similar to that of a neurotransmitter which indicates masticatory muscle pain in the area of the masseter fascia. CGRP is released from the trigeminal ganglion (TG). The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CGRP in the fascia of the masseter muscle (FMM) and TG in a morphometric manner, with respect to the location and density of CGRP-immunopositive reaction fiber (CGRP-IRF). A higher number of the CGRP-IRF were mainly found located around elongated blood vessels and small nerves on the origin side of the middle zone FMM in the O group (presented with occlusion). In the sectional histochemical analysis of the O group, the CGRP-IRF were clearly detected in oval vessels, large elongated vessels and large nerves in contrast with that of the Non-O group (presented with no occlusion) samples. The number of CGRP-immunopositive ganglion cells (CGRP-IPGCs) in the O group mandibular nerve division was higher than that of other divisions. A reduction of the CGRP-IRF numbers were found in the no-loading groups. The characterization of these locations of CGRP-IPGCs can also provide useful data for the understanding of myofascial pain syndrome of the masseter muscle (MM).
Purpose: To establish a method by which angiography of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) can be performed smoothly, we investigated the relative locations of the coeliac trunk (CT), superior mesenteric artery (SMA), IMA, and left renal artery (LtRA). Methods: From a total of 60 cadavers, 32 cadavers with few arteriosclerotic lesions and little vascular tortuosity were selected for the study. The abdominal aorta (Ao) were removed and incised on both lateral side, along the vertical axis and transected into the ventral and dorsal sides. The intravascular lumen on the ventral side of the Ao was photographed using a digital camera, and the horizontal and vertical diameters of the sites of confluence of the CT, SMA, and IMA, were measured on the computer screen. We also calculated the distances between the branches, including the CT, SMA, IMA, LtRA, and the common iliac artery (CoI). Results: Although the SMA-IMA distance did not correlate with the CT-SMA distance, the ratio of the SMA-IMA to CT-CoI distance was four times greater than the ratio of the CT-SMA to CT-CoI distance. Conclusions: The site of branching of the IMA can be inferred to some extent from the CT and SMA distance.
To clarify the cause of posterolateral rotatory instability after damage to the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL), the morphological characteristics of the LUCL were reinvestigated and three-dimensional (3D) image of the ligament was reconstructed using 35 human elbows. The results were as follows: 1) the insertion point of the LUCL on the humerus was almost at the center of the capitellum, and its width was 2.61 ± 1.02 mm. The insertion point of the LUCL on the ulna was located from the lesser sigmoid notch to the supinator crest and had a width of 9.0 ± 2.8 mm. The proximal insertion of the LUCL on the ulna was 7.0 ± 3.0 mm, and the distal part was on the articular surface of the radial head. 2) Three-dimensional imaging of the LUCL revealed an anterior curved shape that covered the radial head. Based on these results, it was clear that both the supinator crest and the lesser sigmoid notch could be useful as osseous landmarks. We think that these anatomical results are useful for surgeons performing LUCL reconstruction.
The mandibular canal (MC) contains vessels and nerves in the mandible of the Japanese macaque (JM). The inferior alveolar nerves and vessels of the mandible insert from the mandibular foramen and then run through the MC, the mental foramen and spinal foramen to the outside of the mandible. However, the detailed morphological properties of multiple canals, such as the accessory canal (AC) of the mandible, are unknown in JMs. The purpose of this study was to describe the multiple canals of JMs and to determine the location and analyse the measurements of the JM mandible. In this study, we also showed the course of the lingual foramen in 17 JMs (male: n = 8; female: n = 9) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). In our results, we classified multiple mental foramina and multiple lingual foramina found on the mandibular body at the premolar or molar region. However, there was no significance between the formation of mandibular properties and the lingual foramen. These multiple foramina contain nerves and blood vessels have a few branched canals; these branches run downward and connect with the inferior mandibular nerve and artery. These morphological features may provide useful information about surgical treatment of the alveolus in a human model.