The anterior thighs of 16 limbs from eight donated cadavers were observed using ultrasonic imaging and gross dissection with a specific focus on the subcutaneous tissue, which is considered an auxiliary element of locomotion. On ultrasonic imaging, the subcutaneous tissue was found to comprise multiple layers. The number of layers gradually decreased on progressing distally in the thigh. On gross dissection, a lot of fatty tissue and loose multiple laminar structures were observed in the medial and proximal areas. However, on progressing distally, these layers thinned out and became less fatty. Cutaneous nerves were apparent among the layers below the dermis. In addition, there were many associated fiber bundles between the dermis and muscle fascia, some of which appeared to be so-called skin ligaments that run through the subcutaneous tissue perpendicularly from the fascia to dermis, accompanying cutaneous nerve fibers and blood vessels. While identifying the peripheral cutaneous nerve fibers, several anastomosing rami and neural networks were recognized. These observations suggest that skin ligaments could be elements regulating motor restriction during muscular movement.
Introduction: The human azygos vein (AV) generally runs on the right side of the vertebral column. However, a shift in its course to the middle/left side of the vertebral column, potentially as a result of aging, has been reported. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between AV displacement and aging. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven adult cadavers were dissected. When an AV left shift was observed, long axis AV length was measured by calculating the number of vertebral bodies under the vein. We also investigated whether a crossover vein existed between AV and hemiazygos vein at the extreme left shifting point, and whether osteophytes existed along the vertebral column. Results: Forty-four cadavers (94%) had left-shifted AVs. A weak positive correlation between age and the length of the left shift was observed (r = 0.3061, P = 0.0364). Thirty cadavers (64%) had crossover veins at the extreme left shifting point, and 24 cadavers (51%) had osteophytes along the vertebral column. There was no significant relationship between the length of left-shifted AVs and the existence of crossover veins or osteophytes. Conclusion: The possibility of AV displacement to the left as part of the aging process is suggested.
An immunohistochemical analysis of the chemoarchitecture of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamine synthetase (GS) was conducted in the rat optic nerve. The optic nerve has been divided into 3 regions: the intraretinal, unmyelinated, and myelinated regions. However, it currently remains unclear whether the chemoarchitecture of GFAP and GS is homogeneously organized, especially in the myelinated region. The intraretinal region was divided into intraretinal regions 1 (i1) and 2 (i2). GFAP immunoreactivity was very strong in the i2 and unmyelinated regions, and strong in the i1 region. GS immunoreactivity was moderate in the i1 and i2 regions, and weak in the unmyelinated region. The myelinated region was separated into myelinated regions 1 (m1) and 2 (m2). In the m1 region, GFAP immunoreactivity was strong and GS immunoreactivity was moderate; however, GFAP immunoreactivity was moderate and GS immunoreactivity was weak in the m2 region. Thus, the chemoarchitecture was heterogeneously organized in the myelinated region, with the i1, i2 and m1 regions being the main GS distribution sites. Moreover, most GS-immunoreactive glial cells were oligodendrocytes in the myelinated region. Since GS is a key enzyme in glutamate metabolism, these results may facilitate future investigations for a clearer understanding of glutamate metabolism.