Objective: Knowledge of the anatomy of the stomach and its surrounding structures is essential for lymph node dissection. This is the first gross anatomical investigation of anastomosis variations in the gastroepiploic arteries (GEA). The aim of this study is to examine the anastomosis pattern of the right and left GEA (RGEA and LGEA, respectively). Methods: Seventeen cadavers were dissected, and the anastomotic patterns of RGEA and LGEA were observed macroscopically. Results: The anastomotic patterns were classified into two groups. Type 1 had direct anastomosis (n = 16; 94.1%), whereas Type 2 had no anastomosis (n = 1; 5.9%). Formation of an arterial arch along the greater curvature was observed in twelve cases (70.6%), whereas four cases (23.5%) exhibited mesh-like anastomosis or narrow anastomotic branches. Conclusions: Direct anastomoses were observed in almost all the cases. These results are significant, and may be useful in the classification of lymph nodes or speculation of cancer metastases.
The objective of this study was to evaluate morphological changes at the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint and capillary of the retrodiscal tissue in a rat model for type 2 spontaneous diabetes mellitus (DM) (i.e., Goto-Kakizaki [GK] rats) compared to normal Wistar rats. A total of 20 experimental rats were used in this study; the rats were categorized into the normal (n = 10 male 8-week-old Wistar rats) and DM (n = 10 male 8-week-old GK rats) groups. Hematoxylin-eosin stained specimens were obtained from 5 rats from each group. Image analyses of the hematoxylin-eosin stained specimens were conducted using light micrographs, which allowed comparisons of the thickness of the anterior, central, and posterior parts of the articular disc. Afterwards, the microvascular corrosion cast specimens were obtained from 5 rats from each group. The diameter of the capillary of the retrodiscal tissue was determined by analyzing scanning electron micrographs of the microvascular corrosion cast specimens. Student’s t-test was used to test for statistical significant differences between the 2 groups. Differences were considered significant when p < 0.01. We found that the thickness of the anterior, central, and posterior parts of the articular disc, and the diameter of the capillary of the retrodiscal tissue was significantly lower in the DM vs. normal group. Therefore, we consider that DM-associated the hyperglycemia causes atrophy of the articular disc and microangiopathy of the capillary of the retrodiscal tissue in GK rats.
The prostate is a male accessory genital gland that plays an essential role in reproductive function. To understand the cytological characteristics of differentiating prostatic cells, we used lectin histochemistry combined with immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution of lectin-binding sites on prostatic cells during postnatal development in the mouse. During postnatal development, Hippeastrum Hybrid Lectin (HHL) lectin reacted consistently with the luminal cells of all prostatic lobes (regions), whereas the Ricinus Communis Agglutinin I (RCA-I) and Soybean Agglutinin (SBA) lectins showed remarkable differences with age, region, and cell type. We found that the lectin-binding pattern in differentiating prostatic cells acquired adult characteristics around 3 weeks after birth. The results indicate that prostatic cell differentiation during postnatal development in mice is characterized by the presence of cell- and region-specific lectin-binding sites in the prostate, suggesting that there may also be cellular and regional differences in their function. Furthermore, some lectins (HHL, RCA-I, and SBA) could provide useful markers for research into cell differentiation and for the pathological evaluation of prostatic diseases or in the diagnosis of male infertility.