Models of personality and health have grown in complexity as more is discovered about how traits are related to health-related behaviors, morbidity, and mortality. The present article applies a model of personality and health that incorporates longitudinal relations, behavioral and physiological mechanisms, and context to the relation between Five-Factor Model personality traits and body mass index (BMI) and obesity (BMI≥30). Conscientiousness is associated consistently with lower body weight; the relation between the other traits and BMI is more complex. Conscientiousness is also associated with risk of obesity over time, and specific aspects of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism are associated with greater weight gain and are also sensitive to changes in weight over time. Behavioral (e.g., physical activity) and physiological (e.g., inflammation) factors explain part of the association between personality and BMI. Finally, the broader social environment shapes the expression of personality in relation to body weight. This review highlights replicable associations between personality and BMI and potential mechanisms of this association. Future research needs to better address how specific aspects of the social and family environment moderate the relation between personality and BMI and take a lifespan perspective to better incorporate how traits contribute to weight starting in childhood.
This study developed the children's versions of the Strengths Knowledge Scale and Strengths Use Scale, and examined their reliability and validity. The participants were 121 elementary school students in the fifth and sixth grades. The children's versions of the scales showed a single-factor structure, and their internal consistency and high test–retest reliability were confirmed. In addition, strengths knowledge and strengths use were moderately negatively correlated with overall stress response, irritated-angry feeling, and helplessness. These findings provided support for the reliability and validity of the children's versions of the Strengths Knowledge Scale and Strengths Use Scale.
The structure of a scale of generativity was examined and gender differences were investigated among 649 men and women in their forties and fifties in Japan. Results indicated that generativity consists of two factors: generative consciousness and the will to make social contributions. Gender difference was seen in both factors: men had higher generative consciousness while women had higher will to make social contributions. These results suggested that the difference in the social share due to gender influenced the state of generativity among middle-aged people in Japan.