This paper reports the development and validation of a state self-esteem scale based on the Two-Item Self-Esteem Scale (TISE). Participants completed the state self-esteem scale in hypothetical scenarios. The criterion-related validity was confirmed owing to the significantly higher TISE score in a positive situation than in a negative situation for both achievement and affiliation scenarios. The concurrent validity was confirmed by the positive correlations between the TISE and a modified state Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The internal consistency of the TISE was also confirmed. Results showed that the TISE was a useful tool in assessing state self-esteem.
This study developed a Junior High School Students' Version of the Sensory Sensitivity Index (SSSI) to assess the characteristics of sensitive students. Participants included 250 students (119 boys, 112 girls, and 19 not categorized by gender). The results demonstrated that the 12-item SSSI consisted of two factors “Ease of Excitation” and “Environment Change Sensitivity.” The SSSI score was correlated to the Big Five personality traits, and was observed to be higher in left-handed students. Moreover, highly sensitive students (high SSSI score group: 15.2%) exhibited higher sympathy and statetrait anxiety, and more school stressors than did less sensitive students.
One previous study suggested that self-reflection positively affected decentering, but self-rumination negatively affected it. However, the study was cross-sectional, and temporal relationships between the variables were not sufficiently explained. In the present study, we conducted a two-wave longitudinal survey to elucidate the temporal association between self-reflection, self-rumination, and decentering. We found that self-reflection significantly interacted with self-rumination predicting Time 2 decentering after controlling for Time 1 decentering. The test of simple slopes indicated that self-reflection very weakly, but marginally significantly, buffered the negative effect of self-rumination on decentering. This result suggests that self-reflection contributes to maintaining a decentered perspective against facing negative self-discrepancy.
The characteristics of social problem solving and rumination in formerly depressed people were investigated. Based on the results of a self-report measure, the participants were divided into a formerly depressed group that had experienced an episode that met the criteria for major depression (n=14), and a never-depressed group (n=92). The formerly depressed group had higher scores on the Rational Problem-Solving subscale of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version and the Brooding and Reflective Pondering subscales of the Ruminative Responses Scale, after controlling for gender and the current depression level. It is possible that these factors increase the vulnerability to depression.
We investigated the effects of trauma and victimhood (paranoid ideation) on posttraumatic stress response (PTSR) and dissociation in 207 undergraduate students classified into traumatic and non-traumatic stress groups (n=38 and n=169 respectively). The results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that trauma and the frequency of paranoid ideation significantly affected dissociative experiences, that the frequency and distress of paranoid ideation significantly affected PTSR, and that trauma did not significantly affect PTSR. Thus, victimhood may account for severe PTSR caused by mild stress.
We developed a Japanese version of the Trypophobia Questionnaire (TQ-J) that measures proneness to disgust for a cluster of objects. Its validity was examined using discomfort ratings for trypophobic, neutral, and unpleasant images, and assessment of trait anxiety. The TQ-J showed a one-factor structure, and sufficient internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Its strong correlations with discomfort ratings for trypophobic images indicated optimal convergent validity. It did not correlate with ratings for neutral images, and only weakly correlated with ratings for unpleasant ones and trait anxiety; these findings indicated sufficient discriminant validity. Our results confirmed the reliability and validity of the TQ-J.
Cognitive control can help decrease depression. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between individual factors and cognitive control. However, the relationship between social support, which may increase cognitive control, and cognitive control has not been revealed. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between cognitive control and social support. We conducted a questionnaire survey with 171 university students and implemented a covariance structure analysis based on our hypothesis. The results indicated that instrumental support, which is one type of social support, increased cognitive control. This study showed that social support increased cognitive control.