本研究では，ひきこもり傾向とエフォートフル・コントロール（EC），注意バイアスの関連を検討した。大学生100名（男性40名，女性60名）が，ドット・プローブ課題に取り組み，ひきこもり傾向とECを測定する質問紙に回答した。ドット・プローブ課題では，ポジティブ語，ネガティブ語，ニュートラル語の3種類の刺激を用いた。注意バイアス得点として，Engagement scoreとDifficulty to disengage scoreを算出した。性別ごとに調整媒介分析を行った結果，ECとポジティブ刺激への注意がひきこもり傾向を低減することが示された。また，男性においてECが高い場合には，ポジティブ刺激への注意がひきこもり傾向を低減していた。さらに，女性においては，ECが直接ひきこもり傾向と負の関連を持つのと同時に，ポジティブ刺激への注意を介して間接的にひきこもり傾向と負の関連があった。以上から，ポジティブ刺激への注意を促進させることがひきこもり傾向に対する支援に有効である可能性が示唆された。
This study aimed to investigate whether the active voice could be distinguished from the passive voice in the Implicit Association Test (IAT). A total of 29 women took two antisocial single-category IATs (the verbs describing antisocial and prosocial behavior were presented in active voice as stimulus words in one condition and in the passive voice in another). They also answered the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The results revealed that the antisocial single-category IAT presented in the active voice exhibited a positive correlation with anger and hostility, whereas when the same words were presented in the passive voice, no significant correlation was shown with any type of aggression. These results suggest that the active voice and the passive voice are processed differently in the IAT.
This study longitudinally examined the relation between support reciprocity and mental health among college students, focusing on the early stage of friendship development. A total of 106 first-year college students (51 male and 55 female) completed measures of support exchange in a new friendship, mental health (general distress), and relationship intimacy at one week (T1), two weeks (T2), four weeks (T3), and three months (T4) after entering college. In students whose relationship with their new friend remained superficial at T4, support reciprocity was not significantly correlated with general distress at any time point. In contrast, in students whose relationship grew closer at T4, support reciprocity was significantly related to lower general distress at T3 and T4, in line with the whole sample cases.
The aim of this study was to examine the prospective associations between school maladjustment and rolefulness over a period of three years. We tested the hypothesis that rolefulness would negatively predict school maladjustment in high school students. The present study utilized data from 282 students (55% girls) who completed all assessments in three waves during these three years. Cross-lagged panel analyses indicated a significant relationship between school maladjustment and rolefulness across the waves. More specifically, these results suggest that social rolefulness mediated between lack of social competence and lack of perceived self-acceptance or sign of maladjustment.
The present study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal predictability of mental health using Sense of Coherence (SOC) through a linear regression model (LRM) and generalized additive model (GAM). The estimation using LRM and GAM showed that SOC predicted mental health in both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Moreover, the model fit index and analysis of deviance showed that the GAM fitted better with both data compared to LRM. These results suggest that SOC can be used as a predictor of the current and future states of mental health as well as the continuous and gradual changes in mental health.
Previous studies on the relationship between the Dark Triad (DT) and interpersonal relations have not investigated the kind of people individuals with high DT choose as partners. The current study used a questionnaire to examine whether individuals with high DT are likely to form relationships with people who encounter many life stressors and have low social support, people with low socioeconomic status (SES), and people with high loneliness. The results showed that individuals with high DT have more friends with low SES, but this relationship was mainly explained by the variance caused by the degree of narcissism.
Based on the main theories of motivation, Miele and Scholer (2017) provided a comprehensive taxonomy of motivational regulation strategies for different types of motivation. The present study aimed to develop a new scale for assessing motivational regulation strategies from a theoretical perspective suggested by Miele and Scholer (2017), and to examine its reliability and validity. Using exploratory factor analysis, five motivational regulation strategies were extracted. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s α. Significant relationships between academic-learning motivation, regulatory focus, self-efficacy, and different types of regulation strategies provided evidence for the construct validity.