While it has been claimed that retrieval practice (RP) is much more advantageous than other learning strategies, the effects of RP on the re-studying phase are still not well understood. In the present eye-tracking experiment, participants in the Non-RP (NRP) group simply read the text twice. On the other hand, the RP group read the text twice with a free-recall task between the first and the second reading. The results showed that while the NRP group showed significantly less reading time, fewer fixations, and less fixation duration in the second reading than in the first reading, the RP group showed the same reading time, fixation count, and fixation duration in the second reading as in the first reading. These findings suggest that RP modulates the cognitive processes in the second reading and this function may facilitate memory consolidation.
The current work compiled previous studies on parenting support programs at home and abroad and on the role of reading picture books aloud to children as part of parenting support. This work also examined specific forms of support for mothers as part of community parenting support, and it discusses topics for the future.
The quantity and quality of community parenting support are being improved, but parenting is still difficult due to factors such as the weakening of community ties. Two pressing issues are developing a highly versatile support program based on studies and analyses and facilitating enhanced parenting support. The current work begins by compiling previous studies with a focus on the effectiveness of support for mothers as part of a support program in the community with parent and child participation. This work reviews the results of studies on how reading aloud as part of parenting support psychologically affects the mother and the mother-child relationship. Next, this work surveys previous studies on support programs. This work classifies support programs into 4 categories based on the tack taken by support and its intended recipients, and this work identifies the respective features of and issues with those support programs.
Changes in the parenting attitudes of mothers who received parenting support and results of studies on the effectiveness of reading picture books aloud as part of parenting support suggested the importance of developing a support program involving reading picture books aloud. Such a program should lead to a better reading environment for children.
The types of consideration that an individual undertakes when writing an e-mail message has not yet been elucidated. However, an email is written to properly maintain human relationships. Hence, the present research examined the manner in which people adjust content and expression when writing email text. Five Japanese people with different occupations participated in the survey. They wrote an email message refusing a request from their superior to work on a holiday. Afterwards, they articulated their thought process during the writing task in an interview session during which they watched a video recording of themselves composing the message. The participant interviews were recorded and were subsequently analyzed using the grounded theory approach. The results of the investigation generated three category interrelationship diagrams: detailed scene setting, exploring the favorability of the email, and contemplating the degree of favorability of the email. The thought process of an individual writing an email message may be elucidated in the following manner: first, before determining what to write, the environment and situation of the reader is estimated based on given information and existing knowledge; next, a decision is made with regard to the manner in which a favorable message can be written, aiming simultaneously at positive evaluation and the avoidance of negative evaluation from the reader; further, various ways of writing highly favorable emails are devised; and finally the intended content and the expression are adjusted to maximize the degree of favorability. At this juncture, we write after deciding whether to write what we intend to, and then we evaluate the content and expressions of what is written.
The results evidence that when communicating via e-mail, people wish to write emails that the reader would find favorable, which is why they attempt it.