Reviewing notes is known to be an effective way to enhance learning, and to this end, one purpose of teachers' plan for board and instruction of note-taking is organization of students thought and review of class. However, few studies on note-taking among elementary school students have been conducted, and their actual note-taking ability in particular is not clear. This study investigated how well the students were able to recreate their arithmetic class board contents in their notes, and how often they reviewed these notes. The results showed that the reproducibility of the board contents was high in the sections regarding to aim and summary, but low in the sections relating to equations and figures. Further, it was found that the sixth-grade students' notes were more semantically coherent than fourth-grade students. Both grades reviewed their notes from once a month to once a week, with no difference in the frequency of review across the two grades. Additionally, the results of interviews with some of the children suggested that the children who intended to use their notes for memory purposes were not be able to make coherent notes, while the children who took notes mainly for review purposes were able to review them more frequently and thus make more coherent notes.
The purpose of this study was to conduct an experiment to evaluate the concluding sentences of university students by improving the experimental materials and analysis methods. The method was designed to solve the three problems of material sentences, conclusion sentences, and evaluating methods. As a result of this study, four new types of reading comprehension were found, reflecting the results of evaluating appropriate and inappropriate sentences, different qualities of reading for morally biased sentences, and the relationship between material and conclusion sentences. Critical thinking attitude and reader's beliefs were not predictive factors in discriminating each type. The results suggest that it is necessary to consider the process of deriving conclusions and to examine reading comprehension tendencies from multiple perspectives when evaluating the conclusions of sentences.
This study examined the relationship between the processing effort required to read a text in English as a foreign language (EFL) and the text's linguistic features. The study reanalyzed eye movement data from the author's previous study (Nahatame, 2021) as an indication of the processing effort, which were collected from Japanese graduate and undergraduate students reading English texts. The data provided four eye movement measures: average fixation duration, average saccade length, skipping rate, and regression rate. The reading texts were assessed by employing a computational tool for not only simple linguistic features such as word and sentence length, but also more varied and complex features such as lexical sophistication, syntax complexity, and cohesion. The indices of these features were then used to develop statistical models to explain the variance in each of the four eye movement measures. The results showed that in most cases, complex linguistic features were more strongly related to eye movement data than simple features, and therefore they were included in the statistical models to account for eye movement data. Specifically, average fixation duration was explained by the verb semantic cohesion; saccade length was explained by the syntactic complexity (i.e., the number of words before the main verb), word hyponymy, and some cohesion indices; skipping was explained by several indices of cohesion; and regression was explained by word length and polysemy. These findings support the notion that complex linguistic features are helpful to explain processing effort during reading as evidenced by eye movements. Furthermore, they provide insights into cognitive processes of EFL reading.