Peak performances in sport require the full deployment of all powers an athlete possesses. How factors like mechanical power output, technique, and drag each on itself, but also in concert determine swimming performance is subject of inquiry. This overview of swimming biomechanics focuses on three performance factors: (i) generation of propulsion in water, (ii) drag encountered by the body during swimming and (iii) propulsive efficiency. The theoretical considerations will be put to use by predicting individual power requirements for swimming a world record in the 50 m free style based on experimental data.
Supporting an event, water polo game analyses is executed by the scientific section of the Japanese Water Polo Committee, and the data is being offered to the athletes and the spectators at the venue. Moreover, the same data can be seen on a web site established for the game analyses. Also, statistical data of the games that aren't distributed at the venue has been uploaded to the web site. The purpose of this study is to examine the utility value of the web site from the number of access hits and from a questionnaire survey. 1) The number of access hits increases rapidly from the first day of an event, and it continues to a high total until the statistical data is completely uploaded. Of course, depending on the event, there is a difference in the number of total access hits. 2) The web site user would prefer to see more detailed data rather than quickly uploaded data. 3) The web site user would like to see the uploading of game reviews and game broadcasts, in addition to the current contents. 4) It will be suggested to examine charging for the data sheets and the software for the game analysis in the future.
At the World Swimming Championship Fukuoka 2001, which used a 3 meter depth pool, eight new world records were made in contrast to zero world records at the previous event which used a 2 m depth pool. Why the difference occurred was the motivation for this study. To determine whether “shallow water effect” occurs in a swimming pool, we measured the resistance of a life sized swimmer model in an experimental towing tank with three different water depths of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.5 meters. The results were as follows; 1) When compared to 2.0 m depth condition, the resistance of towed model in the 1.0 m depth condition increased by 3.4 % at speed range 2 m/s and above. This can be recognized as “shallow water effect”. 2) Also compared to 2.0 m depth condition, the resistance in 3.5 m depth condition increased by 1.1 %. This may be regarded as a measurement error. 3) In conclusion, these experiments indicate that there is a “shallow water effect” in a swimming pool at a depth of about 1.0 m in the current competitive swimmers' speed range.