Most research projects with respect to energy saving are trying to improve power efficiency and are using software to manage the power systems in the power on mode; but in our design, we modify the original Suspend to RAM mode-S3 state, which is the 3rd system state as defined by the ACPI specification, in order to reduce power consumption. We've redesigned the control circuit to save power while a PC is in the standby mode. First, we re-examine the entire circuit in the standby mode, and clarify which chip is used both to wake up the system and to turn off all unnecessary standby power previously used by the chips. Secondly, we redesign the power sequence and use an additional chip to control the system power supply, to allow a PC's normal system's operation to turn off the unnecessary power control chips. Third, in order to save power supply in the standby mode, we have simplified the multiple remote wake-up mechanism to control the remote boot device. The improvement shows that our design reduced power consumption to 0.21W from the original 0.56W while all the remote wake-up functions are disabled; and consumes 0.42W when using multiple remote wake-up functions. We implement the above modification from the legacy S3 state, and obtain lower power consumption. In order to distinguish the standby states, we name the modified S3 state as Deep S3 state.
In this paper, a new single soft switched forward converter with a self driven synchronous rectification (SDSR) is introduced. In the proposed converter, a soft switching condition (ZCS turn on and ZVS turn off) is provided for the switch, by an auxiliary circuit without any extra switch. In additional, this auxiliary circuit does not impose high voltage or current stresses on the converter. Since the proposed converter uses SDSR to reduce conductive loss of output rectifier, the rectifier switches are switched under soft switching condition. So, the conductive and switching losses on the converter reduce considerably. Also, implementing control circuit of this converter is very simple, due to the self-driven method employed in driving synchronous rectification and the converter is controlled by pulse width modulation (PWM). The experimental results of the proposed converter are presented to confirm the theoretical analysis.
A highly efficient sky-blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED) based on a thermally-activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecule, 1,2-bis(carbazol-9-yl)-4,5-dicyanobenzene (2CzPN), was studied. The sky-blue OLED exhibited a maximum external electroluminescence quantum efficiency (ηEQE) of over 24.0%. In addition, a white OLED using 2CzPN combined with green and orange TADF emitters showed a high ηEQE of 17.3% with a maximum power efficiency of 52.3 lm/W and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.32, 0.43).
Instrumental variable (IV) filters designed for range sidelobe suppression in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar suffer from Doppler mismatch. This mismatch causes losses in peak response and increases sidelobe levels, which affect the performance of MIMO radar. In this paper, a novel method using the component-code processing prior to the IV filter design for MIMO radar is proposed. It not only compensates for the Doppler effects in the design of IV filter, but also offers more virtual sensors resulting in narrower beams with lower sidelobes. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the method.
A low loss intelligent power module (IPM) that specifically designed for high performance frequency-alterable air conditioner applications is proposed. This IPM utilizes 600 V trench gate field stop insulated gate bipolar transistors (TFS-IGBTs) as the main switching devices to deliver extremely low conduction and switching losses. In addition, 600 V SiC schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) are employed as the freewheeling diodes. Compared to conventional silicon fast recovery diodes (FRDs) SiC SBDs exhibit practically no reverse recovery loss, hence can further reduce the power loss of the IPM. Experimental results reveal that the power loss of the proposed IPM is between 3.5∼21.7 W at different compressor frequencies from 10 to 70 Hz, which achieving up to 12.5%∼25.5% improvement when compared to the state-of-the-art conventional Si-based IGBT IPM.
A high energy-efficiency and area-reduction switching scheme for a low-power successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented. Based on the sequence initialization, monotonic capacitor switching procedure and multiple reference voltages, the average switching energy and total capacitance of the proposed scheme are reduced by 99.4% and 87.5% respectively, compared to the conventional architecture.
For realizing wideband class-F power amplifiers (PA), geo-electrical analysis methods are introduced to determine the best design parameters in a simpler way than relying on computer-guided optimization. The fabricated class-F PA at 1.9 GHz demonstrated a peak efficiency of 80.5% and a bandwidth of 750 MHz for an efficiency of more than 63%. It is presumed that the optimization increased the bandwidth by 10%.
With aggressive device scaling, timing failures have become more prevalent due to manufacturing defects and process variations. When timing failure occurs, it is important to take corrective actions immediately. Therefore, an efficient and fast diagnosis method is essential. In this paper, we propose a new diagnostic method using timing information. Our method approximately estimates all the segment delays of measured paths in a design, using inequality-constrained least squares methods. Then, the proposed method ranks the possible locations of delay defects based on the difference between estimated segment delays and the expected values of segment delays. The method works well for multiple delay defects as well as single delay defects. Experiment results show that our method yields good diagnostic resolution. With the proposed method, the average first hit rank (FHR), was within 7 for single delay defect and within 8 for multiple delay defects.
The effect of annealing on the field emission characteristics of a field emitter comprising diamond micropowder was investigated. The threshold voltage Vth at which the emission current begins to flow decreased as the annealing temperature increased, and a minimum Vth was obtained at an annealing temperature of 1345K. The reduction in threshold voltage was due to a reduction in the work function with annealing.