We provide an overview of techniques for the photonic generation of arbitrary RF waveforms, particularly those suitable for impulse radio or multi-band ultrawideband (UWB)-over-fiber transmission, and chirped microwave waveforms, with an emphasis on microwave photonic filtering and optical spectral shaping followed by wavelength-to-time mapping. We discuss possibilities for integrating the various device and component technologies with silicon photonics.
This paper summarizes recent progress on modified uni-traveling carrier photodiodes that have achieved RF output power levels of 1.8 Watt and 4.4 Watt in continuous wave and pulsed operation, respectively. Flip-chip bonded discrete photodiodes, narrowband photodiodes, and photodiodes integrated with antennas are described.
Optical single sideband (SSB) modulation with the Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer was realized by integrating the modulation electrode with the branch-line coupler (BLC) as a 90-degree hybrid onto the modulator substrate. In this paper, BLCs of the microsrtip-line structure were miniaturized on modulator substrates, LiNbO3 (LN), to realize more compact optical SSB modulators. We introduced two techniques of miniaturizing the BLC, one is using periodically installed open-circuited stabs and the other is installing series capacitors. Compared with a conventional pattern of the BLC, an area of the miniaturized BLC by using periodically installed open-circuited stubs was reduced to about 50%, and that by installing series capacitors was done to about 60%. The operation of these miniaturized BLCs was experimentally confirmed as the 90-degree hybrid at around 10GHz. Output ports of each miniaturized BLC were directly connected with the modulation electrode on the modulator substrate. Thereby, we fabricated two types of compact SSB modulators for 1550nm light wavelength. In the experiments, the optical SSB modulation was successfully confirmed by the output light spectra and the sideband suppression ratio of more than 30dB were observed.
An electro-optic (EO) modulator integrated with the microwave planar circuit directly formed on a LiNbO3 (LN) substrate for low frequency-chirp performance and compact configuration is introduced. Frequency chirp of EO intensity modulators was investigated and a dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator combined with a microwave rat-race (RR) circuit was considered for the low-chirp modulation. The RR circuit, which operates as a 180-degree hybrid, was designed on a z-cut LN substrate to create two modulation signals of the same amplitude in anti-phase with each other from a single input signal. Output ports of the RR were connected to the modulation electrodes on the substrate. The two signals of the equal amplitude drive two phase modulation parts of the modulator so that the symmetric interference are realized to obtain intensity modulation of low frequency-chirp. The modulator was designed and fabricated on a single LN substrate for around 10 GHz modulation frequencies and 1550 nm light wavelength. The chirp parameters were measured to be less than 0.2 in the frequency range between 8 and 12 GHz. By compensating imbalance of the light power splitting in the waveguide MZ interferometer the chirp could be reduced even more.
A millimeter-wave radar receiver using a z-cut LiNbO3 optical modulator with orthogonal-gap-embedded patch-antennas on a low-k dielectric material is proposed. A millimeter-wave from a reflected radar signal can be received by the patch-antennas and converted directly to a lightwave through electro-optic modulation. A low-k dielectric material is used as a substrate for improving antenna gain. Additionally, an interaction length between millimeter-wave and lightwave electric fields becomes long. As a result, large modulation efficiency can be obtained, which is proportional to sensitivity of the millimeter-wave radar receiver. Optical millimeter-wave radar beam-forming can be obtained using the proposed device with meandering-gaps for controlling interaction between millimeter-wave and lightwave electric fields in electro-optic modulation. Analysis and experimentally demonstration of the proposed device are discussed and reported for 40GHz millimeter-wave bands. Optical millimeter-wave radar beam-forming in 2-D is also discussed.
We demonstrated generation of arbitrarily patterned optical pulse trains and frequency tunable terahertz (THz) pulses by spectral synthesis of optical combs generated by a Mach-Zehnder-modulator-based flat comb generator (MZ-FCG). In our approach, THz pulses were generated by photomixing of a multi-tone signal, which is elongated pulse train, and a single-tone signal. Both signals were extracted from a comb signal by using optical tunable bandpass filters. In the case of optical pulse train generation, the MZ-FCG generated comb signals with 10 GHz-spacing and 330 GHz-width, which was converted to a 2.85 ps-width pulse train by chirp compensation using a single-mode fiber. By combining the MZ-FCG with a pulse picker composed of a 40 Gbps intensity modulator, divided pulse trains and arbitrarily bit sequences were successfully generated. The single-mode light was extracted by an optical bandpass filter and the band-controlled pulse train was extracted by an optical bandpass filter. By photomixing them, a THz pulse was successfully generated. In the case of THz pulse generation, by photomixing a single-tone and a multi-tone signals extracted by tunable bandpass filters, THz pulses with a center frequency of 300 GHz was successfully generated. Furthermore, frequency tunability of the center frequency was also demonstrated.
Terahertz (THz) band is an attractive candidate for future broadband (> 10 Gb/s) wireless backhaul and fronthaul. THz transmitter employing optical frequency comb can provide high quality THz carrier, and is useful to the future broadband THz communication systems based on coherent transmission technique. To realize coherent transmission, high quality carrier generation is essential and it is important to evaluate the signal quality of a THz transmitter. In this paper, we derive error vector magnitude (EVM) including optical impairments (optical amplifier noise, laser phase noise, optical crosstalk and IQ imbalance of optical modulator) of the optical frequency comb based transmitter. The calculated EVM is in good agreement with simulated one, and practical requirements for optical impairment are indicated. The analysis will be useful in the design of THz transmission systems employing an optical frequency comb.
We investigate a quantization error improvement technique using a dual rail configuration for optical quantization. Our proposed optical quantization uses intensity-to-wavelength conversion based on soliton self-frequency shift and spectral compression based on self-phase modulation. However, some unfavorable input peak power regions exist due to stagnations of wavelength shift or distortions of spectral compression. These phenomena could induce a serious quantization error and degrade the effective number of bit (ENOB). In this work, we propose a quantization error improvement technique which can make up for the unfavorable input peak power regions. We experimentally verify the quantization error improvement effect by the proposed technique in 6 bit optical quantization. The estimated ENOB is improved from 5.35 bit to 5.66 bit. In addition, we examine the XPM influence between counter-propagating pulses at high sampling rate. Experimental results and numerical simulation show that the XPM influence is negligible under ∼40 GS/s conditions.
All-optical 1-to-6 wavelength multicasting of a 10-Gb/s picosecond-tunable-width converted return-to-zero (RZ)-on-off-keying (OOK) data signal using a wideband-parametric pulse source from a distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) is experimentally demonstrated. Width-tunable wavelength multicasting within the C-band with approximately 40.6-nm of separation with various compressed RZ data signal inputs have been proposed and demonstrated. The converted multicast pulse widths can be flexibly controlled down to 2.67 ps by tuning the Raman pump powers of the DRA. Nearly equal pulse widths at all multicast wavelengths are obtained. Furthermore, wide open eye patterns and penalties less than 1.2 dB at the 10-9 bit-error-rate (BER) level are found.
A combination of nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ)-to-return-to-zero (RZ) waveform conversion and wavelength multicasting with pulsewidth tunability is experimentally demonstrated. A NRZ data signal is injected into a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF)-based four-wave mixing (FWM) switch with four RZ clocks compressed by a Raman amplification-based multiwavelength pulse compressor (RA-MPC). The NRZ signal is multicast and converted to RZ signals in a continuously wide pulsewidth tuning range between around 12.17 and 4.68 ps by changing the Raman pump power of the RA-MPC. Error-free operations of the converted RZ signals with different pulsewidths are achieved with negative power penalties compared with the back-to-back NRZ signal and the small variation among received powers of RZ output channels at a bit-error-rate (BER) of 10-9. The NRZ-to-RZ waveform conversion and wavelength multicasting without using the RA-MPC are also successfully implemented.
We report the adaptability of the burst-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier (BM-EDFA) for uplink transmission of sharply rising analog radio-over-fiber (RoF) signals by using long-term evolution (LTE) -Advanced format on a mobile front-haul. Recent drastically increased mobile data traffic is boosting the demand for high-speed radio communication technologies for next-generation mobile services to enhance user experience. However, the latency become increasingly visible as serious issues. Analog RoF technology is a promising candidate for a next generation mobile front-haul to realize low latency. For the uplink, an RoF signal may rise sharply in response to a burst of in-coming radio signals. We propose that a newly developed BM-EDFA is applied for such a sharply rising RoF signal transmission. The BM-EDFA that we designed using enhanced intrinsic saturation power EDF to suppress the gain transient caused by received optical power fluctuations with optical feedback. The new BM-EDFA was designed for a wider linear output power range and lower NF than the previous BM-EDFA. The observed range of received optical power satisfying an error vector magnitude of less than 8%rms achieved over 16dB. We consider that our BM-EDFAs with wide linear ranges of output power will be a key device for the LTE-Advanced RoF uplink signal transmission via optical access networks for the next-generation mobile front-haul.
In this paper, we propose a flexible and high-capacity front-haul link for the uplink transmission of high-speed mobile signals using a cascade of radio-on-radio (RoR) and radio-over-fiber (RoF) systems. To emulate the cases that may occur in the uplink direction, we experimentally investigate the performance of superposing an uplink bursty LTE-A signal on the cascaded system using optical packet signal transmission. The performance of systems using different types of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), including a high-transient EDFA, an automatic-gain-control EDFA, and a burst-mode (BM) EDFA is evaluated and compared. We confirm that the dynamic transience of the EDFAs has a significant influence on the signal performance. By using a BM-EDFA, we confirm successful transmission of the uplink packetized LTE-A signal on the cascaded system. Both the measured error vector magnitude and the received optical power range metrics exceed the requirements. We also estimate the maximum transmission range of the RoR link, and it is confirmed that a sufficiently long range could be achieved for the applications in mobile front-haul networks.
A re-configurable wavelength de-multiplexer for wave-length-division-multiplexed (WDM) radio-over-fiber (RoF) systems, which is specially designed for delivering frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) signals, is newly developed. The principle and characteristics of the developed de-multiplexer are described in detail. Then the de-multiplexing performances of 4-channel WDM 32-GHz-band, 8-channel WDM 48-GHz-band, and 5-channel WDM 96-GHz-band FM-CW RoF signals are evaluated with the de-multiplexer.
In this paper, we present a new electro-optic (EO) probing system based on heterodyne detection. The use of a recirculating frequency shifter allows to expand the bandwidth of the system far beyond what is attainable with a conventional heterodyne EO set-up. The performance for the frequencies up to 50GHz is analysed to forecast the viability of the system up to the THz range.
We demonstrate the characterization of a horn antenna in the full F-band (90 ∼ 140 GHz) based on far-field transformation from near-field electro-optic (EO) measurement. Our nonpolarimetric self-heterodyne EO sensing system enables us to simultaneously measure the spatial distribution of the amplitude and phase of the RF signal. Because free-running lasers are used to generate and detect the RF signal, our EO sensing system has wide frequency tunability. Owing to the stable and reliable amplitude and phase measurements with minimal field perturbation, the estimated far-field patterns agree well with those of the simulated results. We have evaluated the estimation errors of the 3-dB beamwidth and position of the first sidelobe. The largest standard error of the measurements was 1.1° for 3-dB beamwidth and 3.5° for the position of first sidelobe at frequency 90 GHz. Our EO sensing system can be used to characterize and evaluate terahertz antennas for indoor communication applications such as small-size slot array antennas.
The use of an interface-planarization (IP) prism in millimeter-wave ellipsometry is proposed to achieve reproducible measurements of soft, protean, and non-flat samples. The complex relative dielectric constants of a slice of bovine tissue were successfully measured at frequencies from 90 to 140 GHz using the IP prism to confirm its applicability. The use of the IP prism was found to be advantageous for protecting the sample surface from the desiccation during the measurements.
A quantum dot (QD) electro-absorption device was successfully developed with a highly stacked InAs/InGaAlAs QD structure. A 1.55-µm waveband electro-absorption effect and a quantum confined Stark effect of approximately 22 meV under the application of a 214-kV/cm reverse bias electric field are clearly observed in the developed QD device.
This paper presents a cell-based all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) with hierarchical gated digitally controlled oscillator (G-DCO) for low voltage operation, wide frequency range as well as low-power consumption. In addition, a new time-domain hierarchical frequency estimation algorithm (HFEA) for frequency acquisition is proposed to estimate the output frequency in 1.5MF (MF = 3 in this paper) cycles and this fast lock-in time is suitable to the dynamic voltage frequency scaling (DVFS) systems. A hierarchical G-DCO is proposed to work at low supply voltage to reduce the power consumption and at the same time to achieve wide frequency range and precise frequency resolution. The core area of the proposed ADPLL is 0.02635 mm2. In near-threshold region (VDD = 0.36 V), the proposed ADPLL only dissipates 68.2 µW and has a rms period jitter of 1.25% UI at 60 MHz output clock frequency. Under 0.5 V VDD operation, the proposed ADPLL dissipates 404.2 µW at 400 MHz. The fast lock-in time of 4.489 µs and the low jitter performance below 0.5% UI at 400 MHz output clock frequency in the proposed ADPLL are suitable in event-driven or DVFS applications.
Track mis-registration (TMR) is one of the major problems in high-density magnetic recording systems such as bit-patterned media recording (BPMR). In general, TMR results from the misalignment between the center of the read head and that of the main track, which can deteriorate the system performance. Although TMR can be handled by a servo system, this paper proposes a novel method to alleviate the TMR effect, based on the readback signal. Specifically, the readback signal is directly used to estimate a TMR level and is then further processed by the suitable target and equalizer designed for such a TMR level. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method can sufficiently estimate the TMR level and then helps improve the system performance if compared to the conventional receiver that does not employ a TMR mitigation method, especially when an areal density is high and/or a TMR level is large.
The expressions for the reset noise in capacitive-transimpedance-amplifier (CTIA) readout circuits are theoretically derived and confirmed experimentally. The contributions to the reset noise from the thermal current and amplifier noise are considered. The thermal reset noise is found to depend only on the feedback capacitance among the circuit parameters.
July 27, 2015 There had been a system trouble (from July 26‚ 2015 15:25 to July 27‚ 2015 1:00 (GMT)). The service has been back to normal.
July 15, 2015 A new online journal "Mechanical Engineering Letters" has been launched by The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME). This publication of such a letter journal is not only a new experience but also a tremendous challenge for the mechanical engineering society.
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