This paper deals with the diffraction of a monochromatic plane wave by a periodic grating. We discuss a problem how to obtain a numerical diffraction efficiency (NDE) satisfying the reciprocity theorem for diffraction efficiencies, because diffraction efficiencies are the subject of the diffraction theories. First, this paper introduces a new formula that decomposes an NDE into two components: the even component and the odd one. The former satisfies the reciprocity theorem for diffraction efficiencies, but the latter does not. Therefore, the even component of an NDE becomes an answer to our problem. On the other hand, the odd component of an NDE represents an unwanted error. Using such the decomposition formula, we then obtain another new formula that decomposes the conventional energy error into two components. One is the energy error made by even components of NDE's. The other is the energy error constructed by unwanted odd ones and it may be used as a reciprocity criterion of a numerical solution. This decomposition formula shows a drawback of the conventional energy balance. The total energy error is newly introduced as a more strict condition for a desirable solution. We point out theoretically that the reciprocal wave solution, an approximate solution satisfying the reciprocity for wave fields, gives another solution to our problem. Numerical examples are given for the diffraction of a TM plane wave by a very rough periodic surface with perfect conductivity. In the case of a numerical solution by the image integral equation of the second kind, we found that the energy error is much reduced by use of the even component of an NDE as an approximate diffraction efficiency or by use of a reciprocal wave solution.
The diffraction by a thin material strip is analyzed for the H-polarized plane wave incidence using the Wiener-Hopf technique together with approximate boundary conditions. An asymptotic solution is obtained for the case where the thickness and the width of the strip are small and large compared with the wavelength, respectively. The scattered field is evaluated asymptotically based on the saddle point method and a far field expression is derived. Scattering characteristics are discussed in detail via numerical results of the radar cross section.
Theoretical maximum radiation efficiency of electrically small spherical surface antennas has been derived in this study. The current on the antenna surface is described in terms of vector spherical harmonics, and the radiated and the dissipated powers are calculated to obtain the radiation efficiency. It has been found that non-resonant TM1m mode shows the best radiation efficiency, and a proper combination of TM10 and TE10 modes establishes a resonant spherical surface antenna whose radiation efficiency is bounded by those values of non-resonant TM10 and TE10 modes. As a practical example of the spherical surface antennas, the radiation efficiency of the spherical helix antennas has also been computed to check the validity of our formulation.
A numerical investigation revealed the relation between the groove randomness of actual-size diffraction gratings and the diffraction efficiencies. The diffraction gratings we treat in this study have around 10000 grooves. When the illumination wavelength is 600 nm, the entire grating size becomes 16.2 mm. The simulation was performed using the difference-field boundary element method (DFBEM). The DFBEM treats the vectorial field with a small amount of memory resources as independent of the grating size. We firstly describe the applicability of DFBEM to a considerably large-sized structure; regularly aligned grooves and a random shallow-groove structure are calculated by DFBEM and compared with the results given by standard BEM and scalar-wave approximation, respectively. Finally we show the relation between the degree of randomness and the diffraction efficiencies for two orthogonal linear polarizations. The relation provides information for determining the tolerance of fabrication errors in the groove structure and measuring the structural randomness by acquiring the irradiance of the diffracted waves.
The Time Domain Boundary Element Method (TDBEM) has its advantages in the analysis of transient electromagnetic fields (wake fields) induced by a charged particle beam with curved trajectory in a particle accelerator. On the other hand, the TDBEM has disadvantages of huge required memory and computation time compared with those of the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method or the Finite Integration Technique (FIT). This paper presents a comparison of the FDTD method and 4-D domain decomposition method of the TDBEM based on an initial value problem formulation for the curved trajectory electron beam, and application to a full model simulation of the bunch compressor section of the high-energy particle accelerators.
We propose a novel improved characteristic basis function method (IP-CBFM) for accurately analysing the radar cross section (RCS). This new IP-CBFM incorporates the effect of higher-order multiple scattering and has major influences in analyzing monostatic RCS (MRCS) of single incidence and bistatic RCS (BRCS) problems. We calculated the RCS of two scatterers and could confirm that the proposed IP-CBFM provided higher accuracy than the conventional method while significantly reducing the number of CBF.
A broadband approach to estimate the relative permittivity of dielectric cuboids has been proposed for materials of weak frequency dispersive characteristic. Our method involves a numerical iterative scheme with appropriate initial values carefully selected to solve for the relative permittivity in a wide range of frequencies. Good agreements between our method and references have been observed for nylon and acrylic samples. An applicable range relation between the minimal thickness, the frequency range and the dielectric property of the material has also been discussed.
This paper presents a prototype of a 3D imaging step-frequency radar system at 10-20GHz suitable for the nondestructive inspection of the walls of wooden houses. Using this prototype, it is possible to obtain data for 3D imaging with a single simple scan and make 3D volume images of braces — broken or not — in the walls of wooden houses using synthetic aperture radar processing. The system is a multistatic radar composed of a one-dimensional array antenna (32 transmitting and 32 receiving antennas, which are resistively loaded printed bowtie antennas) and is able to acquire frequency domain data for all the transmitting and receiving antenna pairs, i.e., 32×32=1024 pairs, in 33ms per position. On the basis of comparisons between two array antenna prototype designs, we investigated the optimal distance between a transmitting array and a receiving array to reduce the direct coupling effect. We produced a prototype multistatic radar system and used it to measure different types of wooden targets in two experiments. In the first experiment, we measured plywood bars behind a decorated gypsum board, simulating a broken wooden brace inside a house wall. In the second experiment, we measured a wooden brace made of Japanese cypress as a target inside a model of a typical (wooden) Japanese house wall. The results of both experiments demonstrate the imaging capability of the radar prototype for nondestructive inspection of the insides of wooden house walls.
Recently, computer speed and memory capacity have been advanced. Therefore, applicable space size or equivalently the frequency in the FDTD method has been increased similar as the ray-tracing method for radio wave propagation. The ray-tracing method can obtain easily important parameters such as path loss, delay profile and angular profile. On the other hand, the FDTD method seems difficult to obtain an angular profile. We can overcome this problem by applying the DOA estimation method to the FDTD method. In this paper, we show that the FDTD method can be used as a counterpart of the ray-tracing method to analyze radio wave propagation of large space by using DOA estimation method such as MUSIC method.
We deal with the scattering of a plane wave by the end-face of an ordered waveguide system composed of identical cores of equal space by the perturbation method and derive analytically the diffraction amplitude. It is shown that the results are in relatively good agreement with those obtained by the numerical method.
In this paper, a periodic perfect conductor is used to investigate the solution for the metallic scatterer problem in soil. We analyzed the pulse reflection responses from the periodic perfect conductor in two dispersion media by varying the parameters for the permittivity properties of the complex dielectric constants, and also investigated the influence of both the dielectric and conductor using a combination of the fast inversion Laplace transform (FILT) method and the point matching method (PMM). In addition, we verified the accuracy of the present method with exact solutions for the transient scattering problem for a perfect conductor plate in the dispersion media.
Optical label processing is expected to reduce power consumption in label switching network nodes. Previously, we proposed passive waveguide circuits for the recognition of BPSK labels with a theoretically infinite contrast ratio. The recognizable label number was limited to four and eight for 4-bit and 8-bit BPSK labels, respectively. In this paper, we propose methods to increase the recognizable label number. The proposed circuits can recognize eight and sixteen labels of 4-bit BPSK codes with a contrast ratio of 4.00 and 2.78, respectively. As 8-bit BSPK codes, 64, 128, and 256 labels can be recognized with a contrast ratio of 4.00, 2.78, and 1.65, respectively. In recognition of all encoded labels, that is, 16 and 256 labels for 4-bit and 8-bit BPSK labels, a reference signal is employed to identify the sign of the optical output signals. The effect of phase deviation and loss along the optical waveguides of the devices is also discussed.
Enhancing the performance of low-temperature (LT) polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) requires high-quality poly-Si films. One of the authors (A.H.) has already demonstrated a continuous-wave (CW) laser lateral crystallization (CLC) method to improve the crystalline quality of thin poly-Si films, using a diode-pumped solid-state CW laser. Another candidate method to increase the on-current and decrease the subthreshold swing (s.s.) is the use of a high-k gate stack. In this paper, we discuss the performance of top-gate CLC LT poly-Si TFTs with sputtering metal/hafnium oxide (HfO2) gate stacks on nonalkaline glass substrates. A mobility of 180 cm2/Vs is obtained for n-ch TFTs, which is considerably higher than those of previously reported n-ch LT poly-Si TFTs with high-k gate stacks; it is, however, lower than the one obtained with a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited SiO2 gate stack. For p-ch TFTs, a mobility of 92 cm2/Vs and an s.s. of 98 mV/dec were obtained. This s.s. value is smaller than the ones of the previously reported p-ch LT poly-Si TFTs with high-k gate stacks. The evaluation of a fabricated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor inverter showed a switching threshold voltage of 0.8 V and a gain of 38 at an input voltage of 2.0 V; moreover, full swing inverter operation was successfully confirmed at the low input voltage of 1.0 V. This shows the feasibility of CLC LT poly-Si TFTs with a sputtered HfO2 gate dielectric on nonalkaline glass substrates.
We fabricated silicon solar cells with spin-coated sol-gel alumina passivation layers on the rear side. Spin-coated alumina passivation films have moderate passivation quality and are inferior to atomic layer deposited passivation films. However, low-cost and low temperature process of the sol-gel deposition is still beneficial for the cells using commercially available Cz silicon wafers. Thus, we consider an applicability of the spin-coated alumina passivation layer for rear side passivation. Dependence of cell efficiency on contact spacing and contact diameter of a rear electrode was investigated by both experiments and numerical calculation. The experimental results indicated that conversion efficiency of the cell is enhanced from 9.1% to 11.1% by optimizing an aperture ratio and contact spacing of the rear passivation layers. Numerical calculation indicated that small contact diameter with low aperture ratio of a rear passivation layer is preferable to achieve good cell performance in our experimental condition. We confirmed the effectivity of the spin-coated alumina passivation films for rear surface passivation of the low-cost silicon solar cells.
We prepared alumina passivation films for p-type silicon substrates by sol-gel wet process mainly using aluminum isopropoxide (Al(O-i-Pr)3) as a precursor material. The precursor solution was spin-coated onto p-type silicon substrates and then calcined for 1 hour in air. Minority carrier lifetime of the passivated wafers was evaluated for different calcination temperature conditions. We also compared the passivation quality of the alumina passivation films using different alumina precursor, aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(acac)3). Obtained effective minority carrier lifetime indicated that the lifetime is strongly depends on the calcination temperature. The substrate calcined below 400°C shows relatively short lifetime below 100 µsec. On the other hand, the substrate calcined around 500°C to 600°C indicates lifetime from 250 to 300 µsec. Calcination temperature dependence of the lifetime for the samples using Al(O-i-Pr)3 precursors shows almost the same as that using Al(acac)3.