The electrical lubricants have been accepted to reduce friction of contacts and to prevent degradation of contact resistance. However, as the lubricant has an electrical insulation property it seems that application to contact surface is unsuitable for contact resistance. These mechanisms in contact interfaces have not fully understood. In this paper, relationships between contact resistance and contact load were examined with both clean and lubricated surfaces. Orientation of the lubricant molecules was observed by high magnification images of STM and AFM. There was no difference in contact resistance characteristics for both clean and lubricated surfaces in spite of lubricants thickness. The molecules were orientated perpendicular to the surface. This fact turns over an established theory of adsorption of non-polar lubricant to surface.
Silver contacts are separated at constant speed and break arcs are generated in a 300V-450V DC and 10A resistive circuit. The transverse magnetic field of a permanent magnet is applied to the break arcs. Motion of the break arcs, arc duration and the number of reignitions are investigated when side surfaces of the contacts are covered with insulator pipes. Following results are shown. The motion of the break arcs and the arc duration when the anode is covered with the pipe are the same as those without pipes. When the cathode is covered with the pipe, the motion of break arcs change from that without the pipes and reignitions occur more frequently. The arc duration becomes longer than that without the pipes because of the occurrence of reignitions. The number of reignition increases with increasing the supply voltage in 300V-400V. The period of occurrence of the reignition with pipes is shorter than that when the cathode is covered with the pipe.
Authors have studied degradation phenomenon on electrical contacts under the influences of an external micro-oscillation. A new micro-sliding mechanism 2 (MSM2) has developed, which provides micro-sliding driven by a piezo-electric actuator and elastic hinges. The experimental results are obtained on “minimal sliding amplitudes” to make resistances fluctuate on electrical contacts under some conditions which are three types of inputwaveform (sinusoidal, rectangular, and impulsive) and three levels of frictional force (1.6, 1.0, and 0.3 N/pin) by using the MSM2. The dynamical characteristics are discussed under the conditions. The simple theoretical model on the input signal and the output of the mechanism is built and the theoretical expressions from the model are obtained. A natural angular frequency (ω0=12600[s-1]) and a damping ratio (ζ=0.03[-]) are evaluated using experimental dynamical responses. The waveforms of inputs and outputs are obtained and the characteristics between inputs and outputs are also obtained on the theoretical model using the above. The maximal gain between the input and the output in rectangular or impulsive (24.4) is much larger than that (0.0) in sinusoidal. The difference on the output-accelerations between in sinusoidal and in rectangular (impulsive) is discussed. It is shown that it is possible to cause the degradation phenomenon in sinusoidal only when the output displacement are enlarged. It is also shown that it is possible to cause the phenomenon in rectangular or in impulsive, in addition to the above, when the external force has sharper rising and falling waveforms even if the displacement and the frequency of the force is small. The difference on the output-amplitudes between in rectangular and in impulsive is discussed. It is not clear that there is the difference between the effect in rectangular and that in impulsive. It is indicated that it is necessary to discuss the other causes, for instance, another dynamical, thermal, and chemical process.
Silver electrical contacts are separated at constant speed and break arcs are generated between them in a 200V-450VDC and 10A resistive circuit. The motion of the break arcs is restricted by some surrounding alumina plates. Transverse magnetic field of a permanent magnet is applied to the break arcs. Changing the supply voltage and the height of a wall located at the upper side of the break arcs, the arc lengthening time and motion of the break arcs are investigated. As a result, the higher supply voltage causes an increase of the arc lengthening time. The arc lengthening time increases significantly when the break arcs expand into the whole of the surrounding walls.
Various DC power supply systems such as photovoltaic power generation, fuel cell and others have been gradually spreading, so that DC power distribution systems are expected as one of energy-saving technologies at houses and business-related buildings as well as data centers and factories. Under such circumstances switches for electric appliances are requested to interrupt DC current safely in DC power systems (DC 300-400V). It is well-known that DC current is much more difficult to be interrupted than AC current with current-zero. In this paper a model switch is developed and fundamental characteristics of DC current interruption in a resistive circuit is experimentally and theoretically examined. Consequently arc duration is found to be approximately a function of interrupted power rather than source voltage and circuit current. In addition arc length at its extinction is obtained by the observation of a high-speed camera. Then the arc length is found to be decided only by interrupted power like the gap length, independent of separation velocity. From these results it can be made clear that the arc form becomes arc-shaped at its extinction when the interrupted power is larger than about 500W. In addition the effect of magnetic blow-out on arc extinction is examined.
Negative group delay characteristics can be used to improve signal-integrity performance such as equalizer for compensation of the group delay of transmission line (TL). This brief-paper newly attempts to propose a concept of the embedded Folded-Stepped Impedance Resonator (F-SIR) structure with open-stub resonator, for negative group delay and slope characteristics at high-frequency as well as low-insertion loss. The concept of the proposed TL is based on the combination of resonance and anti-resonance due to open-stub resonator in order to establish wideband negative group delay and negative slope characteristics. The proposed TL is fabricated on PCB, and then the concept is validated by measurement and simulation.
Break arcs are rotated with the radial magnetic field formed by a magnet embedded in a fixed cathode contact. The break arcs are generated in a 48VDC resistive circuit. The circuit current when the contacts are closed is 10A. The depth of the magnet varies from 1mm to 4mm to change the strength of the radial magnetic field for rotating break arcs. Images of break arcs are taken by two high-speed cameras from two directions and the rotational motion of the break arcs is observed. The rotational period of rotational motion of the break arcs is investigated. The following results are obtained. The break arcs rotate clockwise on the cathode surface seen from anode side. This rotation direction conforms to the direction of the Lorentz force that affects to the break arcs with the radial magnetic field. The rotational period gradually decreases during break operation. When the depth of magnet is larger, the rotational period becomes longer.
We investigate a phased array-fed dual reflector antenna applying one-dimensional beam-scanning of the center-fed type, using an elliptical aperture to provide wide area observation. The distinguishing feature of this antenna is its elliptical aperture shape, in which the aperture diameter differs between the forward satellite direction and the cross-section orthogonal to it. The shape in the plane of the forward satellite direction, which does not have a beam-scanning function, is a ring-focus Cassegrain antenna, and the shape in the plane orthogonal to that, which does have a beam-scanning function, is an imaging reflector antenna. This paper describes issues which arose during design of the elliptical aperture shape and how they were solved, and presents design results using elliptical aperture dimensions of 1600 mm × 600 mm, in which the beam width differs by more than two times in the orthogonal cross-section. The effectiveness of the antenna was verified by fabricating a prototype antenna based on the design results. Measurement results confirmed that an aperture efficiency of 50% or more could be achieved, and that a different beam width was obtained in the orthogonal plane in accordance with design values.
A 50-Gb/s optical transmitter, consisting of a 25-Gb/s-class lens-integrated DFB-LD (with -3-dB bandwidth of 20GHz) and a LD-driver chip based on 0.18-µm SiGe BiCMOS technology for inter and intra-rack transmissions, was developed and tested. The DFB-LD and LD driver chip are flip-chip mounted on an alumina ceramic package. To suppress inter-symbol interference due to a shortage of the DFB-LD bandwidth and signal reflection between the DFB-LD and the package, the LD driver includes a two-tap pre-emphasis circuit and a high-speed termination circuit. Operating at a data rate of 50Gb/s, the optical transmitter enhances LD bandwidth and demonstrated an eye opening with jitter margin of 0.23UI. Power efficiency of the optical transmitter at a data rate of 50Gb/s is 16.2mW/Gb/s.
For phase stabilization of two-tone coherent millimeter-wave/microwave carrier generation, two types of phase detection schemes were devised based on lightwave interferometric technique, the Mach-Zehnder interferometric method and the pseudo Mach-Zehnder interferometric method. The former system showed clear eye patterns at both OOK and PSK modulations of 1 Gbit/s on the 12.5-GHz carrier. The latter system demonstrated the error-free transmission at OOK modulation of 11 Gbit/s on the 100-GHz carrier.
Majority logic is quite important for various applications such as fault tolerant systems, threshold logic, spectrum spread coding, and artificial neural networks. The circuit implementation of majority logic is difficult when the number of inputs becomes large because the number of transistors becomes huge and serious delay would occur. In this paper, we propose a new majority circuit with large fan-in. The circuit is composed of ordinary CMOS transistors and the total number of transistors is approximately only 4N, where N is the total number of inputs. We confirmed a correct operation by using HSPICE simulation. The yield of the proposed circuit was evaluated with respect to N under the variations of device parameters by using Monte Carlo simulation.
Circuit performance of SiC-MOSFET-based bidirectional isolated DC/DC converters is investigated based on circuit simulation with the physically accurate compact device model HiSIM_HV. It is demonstrated that the combined optimization of the MOSFETs Ron and of the inductances in the transformer can enable a conversion efficiency of more than 97%. The simulation study also verifies that the possible efficiency improvements are diminished due to the MOSFET-performance degradation, namely the carrier-mobility reduction, which results in a limitation of the possible Ron reduction. It is further demonstrated that an optimization of the MOSFET-operation conditions is important to utilize the resulting higher MOSFET performance for achieving additional converter efficiency improvements.
The scan segmentation method is an efficient solution to deal with the test power problem; However, the use of multiple capture cycles may cause capture violations, thereby leading to fault coverage loss. This issue is much more severe in at-speed testing. In this paper, two scan partition schemes based on complex networks clustering ara proposed to minimize the capture violations without increasing test-data volume and extra area overhead. In the partition process, we use a more accurate notion, spoiled nodes, instead of violation edges to analyse the dependency of flip-flops (ffs), and we use the shortest-path betweenness (SPB) method and the Laplacian-based graph partition method to find the best combination of these flip-flops. Beyond that, the proposed methods can use any given power-unaware set of patterns to test circuits, reducing both shift and capture power in at-speed testing. Extensive experiments have been performed on reference circuit ISCAS89 and IWLS2005 to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
The unconditionally stable (US) Laguerre-FDTD method has recently attracted significant attention for its high efficiency and accuracy in modeling fine structures. One of the most attractive characteristics of this method is its marching-on-in-order solution scheme. This paper presents Hermite-Rodriguez functions as another type of orthogonal basis to implement a new 2-D US solution scheme.