An Al-N system optical absorption layer has been developed, to be used for Al-based metal mesh electrodes on touch screen panels. The triple-layered electrode effectively suppresses the optical reflection in both visible light and the blue color region and exhibits excellent wet etching property that accommodates micro-fabrication. Due to its high noise immunity and contact sensitivity originating from its low electrical resistivity, the proposed metal mesh electrodes are useful for touch-sensitive panels in the next generation ultra-high-resolution displays.
We present an electrostatic tactile display for stimulus localization. The 240-Hz electrostatic force was generated by the beat phenomenon in a region where excited X electrodes cross excited Y electrodes, which presents localized tactile sensation out of the entire surface. A 10.4-in. visual-tactile integrated display was successfully demonstrated.
Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are suitable as elements underlying wearable and ubiquitous computing thanks to their low power consumption. A technique that uses less power to drive 1-pixel LCDs is proposed. It harvests the charges on the LCD and stores them in an external capacitor for reuse when the polarity changes. A simulation shows that the charge reduction depends on the ratio of the capacitance of the external capacitor to that of the LCD and can reach 50%. An experiment on a prototype demonstrates an almost 30% reduction with large 1-pixel LCDs. With a small 10 × 10mm2 LCD, the overhead of the micro-controller matches the reduction so no improvement could be measured. Though the technique requires longer time for polarity reversal, we confirm that it does not significantly degrade visual quality.
We realize homogenous luminance of the directional backlight for the time-division multiplexing autostereoscopic display using a convex lens array with the elemental lenses whose phase of placement in each row differs from one another. The validity of the proposed optical design is confirmed by a prototype system.
We have developed a capacitance sensor of frequency modulation for integrated touchpanels using amorphous In-Sn-Zn-O (α-ITZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). This capacitance sensor consists of a ring oscillator, whose one stage is replaced by a reset transistor, sensing transistor, and sensing electrode. The sensing electrode is prepared as one terminal to form a sensing capacitor when the other terminal is added by a finger. The ring oscillator consists of pseudo CMOS inverters. We confirm that the oscillation frequency changes when the other terminal is added. This result suggests that this capacitance sensor can be applied to integrated touchpanels on flatpanel displays.
We investigated a control of the crystalline orientation of soluble organic semiconductor single crystals using liquid crystal solvents aligned by the electric field to improve the performance of organic thin-film transistors. We clarified that the semiconductor single crystal grows to the direction parallel to the liquid crystal alignment oriented by the lateral electric field.
Transparent organic light-emitting diodes (TOLEDs) were investigated with top electrode of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) by ion-plating method. High deposition rate of 4.4 nm/s was realized without plasma damage of under organic layer. In the TOLEDs with inverted structure, high transmittance of over 75% at 550 nm and bright emission of 1,850 and 1,410 cd/m2, from bottom and top side at 163 mA/cm2, respectively, were obtained.
Optical compensation of flexible in-plane switching (IPS) mode liquid crystal display (LCD) using polycarbonate substrate with uniaxial optical anisotropy was achieved for wide viewing angle. We theoretically clarified that the slow axis of plastic substrate must be parallel to the absorption axis of polarizer and alignment direction of IPS mode LC. We successfully suppressed a light leakage in the dark state in a wide viewing angle range by fabricated device using uniaxial polycarbonate substrates. These results show that it is possible to realize a high quality flexible LCD using plastic substrates.
To develop a flexible liquid crystal display (LCD) with a wide viewing angle range and high contrast ratio, we have proposed a flexible blue-phase LC device sustained by polymer walls inside the LC cell. We clarified that the polymer walls can maintain a constant cell gap and suppress the generation of alignment defects of the blue-phase LC in a bending state.
An 8-Mbit 0.18-µm CMOS 1T1C ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM) in a planar ferroelectric technology was developed. Even though the cell area of 2.48 µm2 is almost equal to that of a 4-Mbit stacked-capacitor FeRAM (STACK FeRAM) 2.32 µm2, the chip size of the developed 8-Mbit FeRAM, including extra 2-Mbit parities for the error correction code (ECC), is just 52.37 mm2, which is about 30% smaller than twice of the 4-Mbit STACK FeRAM device, 37.68mm2×2. This excellent characteristic can be attributed to the large cell matrix architectures of the sectional cyclic word line (WL) that was used to increase the column numbers, and to the 1T1C bit-line GND level sensing (BGS) circuit design intended to sense bit lines (BL) that have bit cells 1K long and a large capacitance. An access time of 52 ns and a cycle time of 77 ns in RT at a VDD of 1.8 V were achieved.