IEICE Transactions on Electronics
Online ISSN : 1745-1353
Print ISSN : 0916-8524
Advance online publication
Showing 1-43 articles out of 43 articles from Advance online publication
  • Tomoki KANEKO, Hirobumi SAITO, Akira HIROSE
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021ECP5012
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 08, 2021
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    This paper proposes an analytical method to design septum-type polarizers by assuming a polarizer as a series of four septum elements with a short ridge-waveguide approximation. We determine parameters of respective elements in such a manner that, at the center frequency, the reflection coefficient of the first element is equal to that of the second one, the reflection of the third one equals to that of the forth, and the electrical lengths of the first, second and third elements are 90 deg. We name this method the Short Ridge-waveguide Approximation Method (SRAM). We fabricated an X-band polarizer, which achieves a cross polarization discrimination (XPD) value of 40.7−64.1 dB over 8.0−8.4 GHz, without any numerical optimization.

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  • Huakang XIA, Yidie YE, Xiudeng WANG, Ge SHI, Zhidong CHEN, Libo QIAN, ...
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021ECP5003
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: June 23, 2021
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    A self-powered flyback pulse resonant circuit (FPRC) is proposed to extract energy from piezoelectric (PEG) and thermoelectric generators (TEG) simultaneously. The FPRC is able to cold start with the PEG voltage regardless of the TEG voltage, which means the TEG energy is extracted without additional cost. The measurements show that the FPRC can output 102 μW power under the input PEG and TEG voltages of 2.5 V and 0.5 V, respectively. The extracted power is increased by 57.6% compared to the case without TEGs. Additionally, the power improvement with respect to an ideal full-wave bridge rectifier is 2.71× with an efficiency of 53.9%.

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  • Ryosuke SANO, Junya SEKIKAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EMP0001
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2021
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    Observed results of arc discharges generated between the brush and commutator are reported. The motion of the arc discharges was observed by a high-speed camera. The brush and commutator were installed to an experimental device that simulated the rotational motion of a real DC motor. The aim of this paper is to investigate the occurring position, dimensions, and moving characteristics of the arc discharges by means of high-speed imaging. Time evolutions of the arc voltage and current were measured, simultaneously. The arc discharges were generated when an inductive circuit was interrupted. Circuit current before interruption was 4A. The metal graphite or graphite brush and a copper commutator were used. Following results were obtained. The arc discharge was dragged on the brush surface and the arc discharge was sticking to the side surface of the commutator. The positions of the arc spots were on the end of the commutator and the center of the brush in rotational direction. The dimensions of the arc discharge were about 0.2 mm in length and about 0.3 mm in width. The averaged arc voltage during arc duration became higher and the light emission from the arc discharge became brighter, as the copper content of the cathode decreased.

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  • Koichi MAEZAWA, Tatsuo ITO, Masayuki MORI
    Type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2021ECS6002
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: June 07, 2021
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    A hard-type oscillator is defined as an oscillator having stable fixed points within a stable limit cycle. For resonant tunneling diode (RTD) oscillators, using hard-type configuration has a significant advantage that it can suppress spurious oscillations in a bias line. We have fabricated hard-type oscillators using an InGaAs-based RTD, and demonstrated a proper operation. Furthermore, the oscillating properties have been compared with a soft-type oscillator having a same parameters. It has been demonstrated that the same level of the phase noise can be obtained with a much smaller power consumption of approximately 1/20.

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  • Sota MATSUMOTO, Ryosuke SUGA, Kiyomichi ARAKI, Osamu HASHIMOTO
    Type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2021ECS6005
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: June 07, 2021
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    In this paper, an ultra-thin wave absorber using a resistive patch array closely-placed in front of a back-metal is designed. The positively large susceptance is required for the patch array to cancel out the negatively large input susceptance of the short-circuited ultra-thin spacer behind the array. It is found that the array needs the gap of 1 mm, sheet resistance of less than 20 Ω/sq. and patch width of more than 15 mm to obtain the zero input susceptance of the absorber with the 1/30 wavelength spacer. Moreover, these parameters were designed considering the electromagnetic coupling between the array and back-metal, and the square patch array absorbers with the thickness from 1/30 to 1/150 wavelength were designed.

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  • Yoshinari ISHIDO, Wataru MIZUTANI
    Type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2020ECS6030
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 31, 2021
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    Focusing on the planar slab structure of OLEDs, it is found the threshold value of the in-plane wave number at which the spectrum component of the electromagnetic field at the outermost boundary is divided into a radiation mode and a guided (confined) mode. This is equivalent to the total reflection condition in the ray optics. The spectral integral of the Poynting power was calculated from the boundary values of the electromagnetic fields in each. Both become average power and reactive power respectively, and the sum of them becomes the total volt-amperes from the light emitting dipole. Therefore, the ratio of average power to this total is the power factor that can be a quantitative index of light extraction.

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  • Xianghong HU, Hongmin HUANG, Xin ZHENG, Yuan LIU, Xiaoming XIONG
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021ECP5009
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 14, 2021
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    Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), one of the asymmetric cryptography, is widely used in practical security application, especially in Internet of Things (IoT) applications. This paper presents a low-power reconfigurable architecture for ECC, which is capable of resisting simple power analysis attacks (SPA) and can be configured to support all of point operations and modular operations on 160/192/224/256-bit field orders over GF(p). Point multiplication (PM) is the most complex and time-consuming operation of ECC, while modular multiplication (MM) and modular division (MD) have high computational complexity among modular operations. For decreasing power dissipation and increasing reconfigurable capability, a Reconfigurable Modular Multiplication Algorithm and Reconfigurable Modular Division Algorithm are proposed, and MM and MD are implemented by two adder units. Combining with the optimization of operation scheduling of PM, on 55 nm CMOS ASIC platform, the proposed architecture takes 0.96, 1.37, 1.87, 2.44 ms and consumes 8.29, 11.86, 16.20, 21.13 uJ to perform one PM on 160-bit, 192-bit, 224-bit, 256-bit field orders. It occupies 56.03 k gate area and has a power of 8.66 mW. The implementation results demonstrate that the proposed architecture outperforms the other contemporary designs reported in the literature in terms of area and configurability.

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  • Koji YAMANAKA, Shintaro SHINJO, Yuji KOMATSUZAKI, Shuichi SAKATA, Keig ...
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMI0008
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 13, 2021
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    High power amplifier technologies for base transceiver stations (BTSs) for the 5th generation (5G) mobile communication systems and so-called beyond 5G (B5G) systems are reviewed. For sub-6, which is categorized into frequency range 1 (FR1) in 5G, wideband Doherty amplifiers are introduced, and a multi-band load modulation amplifier, an envelope tracking amplifier, and a digital power amplifier for B5G are explained. For millimeter wave 5G, which is categorized into frequency range 2 (FR2), GaAs and GaN MMICs operating at around 28GHz are introduced. Finally, future prospect for THz GaN devices is described.

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  • Akihito Hirai, Kazutomi Mori, Masaomi Tsuru, Mitsuhiro Shimozawa
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMP0002
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 13, 2021
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    This paper demonstrates that a 360° radio-frequency phase detector consisting of a combination of symmetrical mixers and 45° phase shifters with tunable devices can achieve a low phase-detection error over a wide frequency range. It is shown that the phase detection error does not depend on the voltage gain of the 45° phase shifter. This allows the usage of tunable devices as 45° phase shifters for a wide frequency range with low phase-detection errors. The fabricated phase detector having tunable low-pass filters as the tunable device demonstrates phase detection errors lower than 2.0° rms in the frequency range from 3.0 GHz to 10.5 GHz.

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  • Kentaro NAGAI, Jun SHIOMI, Hidetoshi ONODERA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020CTP0002
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 20, 2021
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    This paper proposes an area- and energy-efficient DLL-based body bias generator (BBG) for minimum energy operation that controls p-well and n-well bias independently. The BBG can minimize total energy consumption of target circuits under a skewed process condition between nMOSFETs and pMOSFETs. The proposed BBG is composed of digital cells compatible with cell-based design, which enables energy- and area-efficient implementation without additional supply voltages. A test circuit is implemented in a 65-nm FDSOI process. Measurement results using a 32-bit RISC processor on the same chip show that the proposed BBG can reduce energy consumption close to a minimum within a 3% energy loss. In this condition, energy and area overheads of the BBG are 0.2% and 0.12%, respectively.

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  • Go URAKAWA, Hiroyuki KOBAYASHI, Jun DEGUCHI, Ryuichi FUJIMOTO
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020CTP0004
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 20, 2021
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    In general, since the in-band noise of phase-locked loops (PLLs) is mainly caused by charge pumps (CPs), large-size transistors that occupy a large area are used to improve in-band noise of CPs. With the high demand for low phase noise in recent high-performance communication systems, the issue of the trade-off between occupied area and noise in conventional CPs has become significant. A noise-canceling CP circuit is presented in this paper to mitigate the trade-off between occupied area and noise. The proposed CP can achieve lower noise performance than conventional CPs by performing additional noise cancelation. According to the simulation results, the proposed CP can reduce the current noise to 57% with the same occupied area, or can reduce the occupied area to 22% compared with that of the conventional CPs at the same noise performance. We fabricated a prototype of the proposed CP embedded in a 28-GHz LC-PLL using a 16-nm FinFET process, and 1.2-dB improvement in single sideband integrated phase noise is achieved.

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  • Ryo ISHIKAWA, Yoichiro TAKAYAMA, Kazuhiko HONJO
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMI0002
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 16, 2021
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    A practical Doherty amplifier design method has been developed based on an asymmetric configuration scheme. By embedding a load modulation function into matching circuits of a carrier amplifier (CA) and a peaking amplifier (PA) in the Doherty amplifier, an issue of the Doherty amplifier design is boiled down to the CA and PA matching circuit design. The method can be applied to transistors with unknown parasitic elements if optimum termination impedance conditions for the transistor are obtained from a source-/load-pull technique in simulation or measurement. The design method was applied to GaN HEMT Doherty amplifier MMICs. The fabricated 4.5-GHz-band GaN HEMT Doherty amplifier MMIC exhibited a maximum drain efficiency of 66% and a maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) of 62% at 4.1 GHz, with a saturation output power of 36 dBm. In addition, PAE of 50% was achieved at 4.1 GHz on a 7.2-dB output back-off (OBO) condition. The fabricated 8.5-GHz-band GaN HEMT Doherty amplifier MMIC exhibited a maximum drain efficiency of 53% and a maximum PAE of 44% at 8.6 GHz, with a saturation output power of 36 dBm. In addition, PAE of 35% was achieved at 8.6 GHz on a 6.7-dB (OBO). And, the fabricated 12-GHz-band GaN HEMT Doherty amplifier MMIC exhibited a maximum drain efficiency of 57% and a maximum PAE of 52% at 12.4 GHz, with a saturation output power of 34 dBm. In addition, PAE of 32% was achieved at 12.4 GHz on a 9.5-dB (OBO) condition.

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  • Yuchan Wang, Suzhen Yuan, Wenxia Zhang, Yuhan Wang
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021ECP5011
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 14, 2021
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    In conclusion, an initialization method has been introduced and studied to improve the SET speed in PCM. Before experiment verification, a two-dimensional finite analysis is used, and the results illustrate the proposed method is feasible to improve SET speed. Next, the R-I performances of the discrete PCM device and the resistance distributions of a 64 M bits PCM test chip with and without the initialization have been studied and analyzed, which confirms that the writing speed has been greatly improved. At the same time, the resistance distribution for the repeated initialization operations suggest that a large number of PCM cells have been successfully changed to be in an intermediate state, which is thought that only a shorter current pulse can make the cells SET successfully in this case. Compared the transmission electron microscope (TEM) images before and after initialization, it is found that there are some small grains appeared after initialization, which indicates that the nucleation process of GST has been carried out, and only needs to provide energy for grain growth later.

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  • Yuji INAGAKI, Yasuyuki MATSUYA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020CTP0001
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2021
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    A method for detecting the timing of photodiode (PD) saturation without using an in-pixel time-to-digital converter (TDC) is proposed. Detecting PD saturation time is an approach to extend the dynamic range of a CMOS image sensor (CIS) without multiple exposures. In addition to accumulated charges in a PD, PD saturation time can be used as a signal related to light intensity. However, in previously reported CISs with detecting PD saturation time, an in-pixel TDC is used to detect and store PD saturation time. That makes the resolution of a CIS lower because an in-pixel TDC requires a large area. As for the proposed pixel circuit, PD saturation time is detected and stored as a voltage in a capacitor. The voltage is read and converted to a digital code by a column ADC after an exposure. As a result, an in-pixel TDC is not required. A signal-processing and calibration method for combining two signals, which are saturation time and accumulated charges, linearly are also proposed. Circuit simulations confirmed that the proposed method extends the dynamic range by 36 dB and its total dynamic range to 95 dB. Effectiveness of the calibration was also confirmed through circuit simulations.

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  • Ryosuke SUGA, Kazuto OSHIMA, Tomoki UWANO
    Type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2021ECS6003
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2021
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    In this paper, a planar balun having simple and compact features with slit ground was proposed. The operating frequency can be designed by the length and position of the defected ground slits. The 20 dB bandwidth of the common mode rejection ratio of the measuring balun was over 90%.

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  • Shigekazu KIMURA, Toshio KAWASAKI
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMI0006
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2021
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    For improving the fifth-generation mobile communication system, a highly efficient power amplifier must be designed for the base station. An outphasing amplifier is expected to be a solution for achieving high efficiency. We designed a combiner, one of the key components of the outphasing amplifier, using a serial Chireix combiner and fabricated an amplifier with a GaN HEMT, achieving 70% or more high efficiency up to 9 dB back-off power in an 800 MHz band. We also fabricated a 2 GHz-band outphasing amplifier with the same design. We applied digital predistortion (DPD) to control the balance of amplifying units in this amplifier and achieved an average efficiency of 65% under a 20 MHz modulation bandwidth.

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  • Tomohiro Tsukushi, Satoshi Ono, Koji Wada
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMP0007
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2021
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    Realizing frequency rectangular characteristics using a planar circuit made of a normal conductor material such as printed circuit board (PCB) is difficult. The reason is that the corners of the frequency response are rounded by effect of low unloaded quality factors of resonators. Rectangular frequency characteristics are generally realized by a low-noise amplifier (LNA) with flat gain characteristics and a high-order bandpass filter (BPF) with resonators having high unloaded quality factors. Here, we use an LNA and a fourth-order flat passband BPF made of a PCB to realize the desired characteristics. We first calculate the signal and noise powers to confirm any effects from insertion loss caused by the BPF. Next, we explain the design and fabrication of an LNA, since no proper LNAs have been developed for this research. Finally, the rectangular frequency characteristics are shown by a circuit combining the fabricated LNA and the fabricated flat passband BPF. We show that rectangular frequency characteristics can be realized using a flat passband BPF technique.

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  • Takuji Mochizuki
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMI0007
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 08, 2021
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    This paper reports the evaluation and simulated results of the nonlinear characteristics of the 4.65GHz Active Antenna System (AAS) for 5G mobile communication systems. The antenna element is composed of ± 45 ° dual polarization shared patch antenna, and is equipped with total 64 elements with horizontal 8 × vertical 4 × 2 polarization configuration. A 32-element transceiver circuit was mounted on the back side of the antenna printed circuit board. With the above circuit configuration, a full digital beamforming method has been adopted that can realize high frequency utilization efficiency by using the Sub6GHz-band massive element AAS, and excellent spatial multiplexing performance by Massive MIMO has been pursued. However, it was found that the Downlink (DL) SINR (Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio) to each terminal deteriorated because of the nonlinear distorted radiation as the transmission output power was increased in the maximum rated direction. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the spatial multiplexing performance in the high output power region is significantly improved by installing DPD. In order to clarify the affection of nonlinear distorted radiation on spatial multiplexing performance, the radiation patterns were measured using OFDM signal (subcarrier spacing 60kHz × 1500 subcarriers in 90MHz bandwidth) in an anechoic chamber. And by the simulated analysis for the affection of nonlinear distortion on null characteristic, the accuracy of nulls generated in each user terminal direction does not depend on the degree of nonlinearity, but is affected by the residual amplitude and phase variation among all transmitters and receivers after calibration (CAL). Therefore, it was clarified that the double compensation configuration of DPD and high-precision CAL is effective for achieving excellent Massive MIMO performance. This paper is based on the IEICE Japanese Transactions on Communications (Vol.J102-B, No.11, pp.816-824, Nov. 2019).

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  • Akihiko Hirata, Koichiro Itakura, Taiki Higashimoto, Yuta Uemura, Tada ...
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMP0001
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 08, 2021
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    In this paper, we present the transmission characteristics control of a 125 GHz-band split-ring resonator (SRR) bandstop filter by coupling an alignment-free lattice pattern. We demonstrate that the transmission characteristics of the SRR filter can be controlled by coupling the lattice pattern; however, the required accuracy of alignment between the SRR filter and lattice pattern was below 200 μm. Therefore, we designed an alignment-free lattice pattern whose unit cell size is different from that of the SRR unit cell. S21 of the SRR bandstop filter changes from -38.7 to -4.0 dB at 125 GHz by arranging the alignment-free lattice pattern in close proximity to the SRR stopband filter without alignment. A 10 Gbit/s data transmission can be achieved over a 125 GHz-band wireless link by setting the alignment-free lattice pattern substrate just above the SRR bandstop filter.

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  • Haruko YAZAKI, Junya SEKIKAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020ECP5041
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 01, 2021
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    Dependences of arc duration D and contact gap at arc extinction d on contact opening speed v are studied for break arcs generated in a 48VDC resistive circuit at constant contact opening speeds. The opening speed v is varied over a wide range from 0.05 to 0.5m/s. Circuit current while electrical contacts are closed I0 is varied to 10A, 20A, 50A, 100A, 200A, and 300A. The following results were obtained. For each current I0, the arc duration D decreased with increasing contact opening speed v. However, the D at I0=300A was shorter than that at I0=200A. On the other hand, the contact gap at arc extinction d tended to increase with increasing the I0. However, the d at I0=300A was shorter than that at I0=200A. The d was almost constant with increasing the v for each current I0 when the I0 was lower than 200A. However, the d became shorter when the v was slower at I0=200A and 300A. At the v=0.05m/s, for example, the d at I0=300A was shorter than that at I0=100A. To explain the cause of the results of the d, in addition, arc length just before extinction L were analyzed. The L tended to increase with increasing current I0. The L was almost constant with increasing the v when the I0 was lower than 200A. However, when I0=200A and 300A, the L tended to become longer when the v was slower. The characteristics of the d will be discussed using the analyzed results of the L and motion of break arcs. At higher currents at I0=200A and 300A, the shorter d at the slowest v was caused by wide motion of the arc spots on contact surfaces and larger deformation of break arcs.

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  • Seiya MIZUNO, Ryosuke KASHIMURA, Tomohiro SEKI, Maki ARAI, Hiroshi OKA ...
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMP0009
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 30, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Research on wireless power transmission technology is being actively conducted, and studies on spatial transmission methods such as SSPS are currently underway for applications such as power transfer to the upper part of steel towers and power transfer to flying objects such as drones. To enable such applications, it is necessary to examine the configuration of the power-transfer and power-receiving antennas and to improve the RF-DC conversion efficiency (hereinafter referred to as conversion efficiency) of the rectifier circuit on the power-receiving antenna. To improve the conversion efficiency, various methods that utilize full-wave rectification rather than half-wave rectification have been proposed. However, these come with problems such as a complicated circuit structure, the need for additional capacitors, the selection of components at high frequencies, and a reduction in mounting yield. In this paper, we propose a method to improve the conversion efficiency by loading a high-impedance microstrip line as a feedback line in part of the rectifier circuit. We analyzed a class-F rectifier circuit using circuit analysis software and found that the conversion efficiency of the conventional configuration was 54.2%, but the proposed configuration was 69.3%. We also analyzed a measuring circuit made with a discrete configuration in the 5.8-GHz band and found that the conversion efficiency was 74.7% at 24 dBm input.

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  • Yoshinori UZAWA, Matthias KROUG, Takafumi KOJIMA, Masanori TAKEDA, Kaz ...
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2020SUI0003
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 24, 2021
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    This paper describes the development of superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixers for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) from the device point of view. During the construction phase of ALMA, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) successfully fabricated SIS mixers to meet the stringent ALMA noise temperature requirements of less than 230 K (5 times the quantum noise) for Band 10 (787-950 GHz) in collaboration with the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology. Band 10 covers the highest frequency band of ALMA and is recognized as the most difficult band in terms of superconducting technology. After the construction, the NAOJ began development studies for ALMA enhancement such as wideband and multibeam SIS mixers according to top-level science requirements, which are also presented.

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  • Yasunori Suzuki, Shoichi Narahashi
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMI0009
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 24, 2021
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    This paper presents linearization technologies for high efficiency power amplifiers of cellular base stations. These technologies are important to actualizing highly efficient power amplifiers that reduce power consumption of the base station equipment and to achieving a sufficient non-linear distortion compensation level. It is well known that it is very difficult for a power amplifier using linearization technologies to achieve simultaneously high efficiency and a sufficient non-linear distortion compensation level. This paper presents two approaches toward addressing this technical issue. The first approach is a feed-forward power amplifier using the Doherty amplifier as the main amplifier. The second approach is a digital predistortion linearizer that compensates for frequency dependent intermodulation distortion components. Experimental results validate these approaches as effective for providing power amplification for base stations.

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  • Atsushi YAMAOKA, Thomas M. HONE, Yoshimasa EGASHIRA, Keiichi YAMAGUCHI
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMI0004
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 23, 2021
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    With the advent of 5G and external pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, wireless transceivers with low power consumption are strongly desired for future cellular systems. At the same time, increased modulation order due to the evolution of cellular systems will force power amplifiers to operate at much larger output power back-off to prevent EVM degradation. This paper begins with an analysis of load modulation and asymmetrical Doherty amplifiers. Measurement results will show an apparent 60% efficiency plateau for modulated signals with a large peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). To exceed this efficiency limitation, the second part of this paper focuses on a new amplification topology based on the amalgamation between Doherty and outphasing. Measurement results of the proposed Doherty-outphasing power amplifier (DOPA) will confirm the feasibility of the approach with a modulated efficiency greater than 70% measured at 10 dB output power back-off.

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  • Kenji MUKAI, Hiroshi OKABE, Satoshi TANAKA
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMI0005
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 19, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The Fifth-Generation new radio (5G NR) services that started in 2020 in Japan use a higher peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of a modulated signal with a maximum bandwidth of up to 100MHz and support multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) systems even in mobile handsets, compared to the Third-Generation (3G) and/or Fourth-Generation (4G) handsets. The 5G NR requires wideband operation for power amplifiers (PAs) used in handsets under a high PAPR signal condition. The 5G NR also requires a number of operating bands for the handsets. These requirements often cause significand degradation of the PA efficiency, consequently. The degradation is due to wideband and/or high PAPR operation as well as additional front-end loss between a PA and an antenna. Thus, the use of an efficiency enhancement technique is indispensable to 5G NR handset PAs. An envelope tracking (ET) is one of the most effective ways to improve the PA efficiency in the handsets. This paper gives recent progress in ET power amplifiers (ETPAs) followed by a brief introduction of ET techniques. The introduction describes a basic operation for an ET modulator that is a key component in the ET techniques and then gives a description of some kinds of ET modulators. In addition, as an example of a 5G NR ETPA, the latest experimental results for a 5G ETPA prototype are demonstrated while comparing overall efficiency of the ET modulator and PA in the ET mode with that in the average power tracking (APT) mode.

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  • Taro Yamashita
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2020SUI0004
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2021
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    We review a new superconducting element, called “magnetic Josephson junctions” with a magnetic barrier instead of the insulating barrier of conventional Josephson junctions. We classify the three types of magnetic barrier, i.e., diluted alloy, conventional ferromagnet, and magnetic multilayer barriers, and introduce various new physics such as the π-state arising in magnetic Josephson junctions due to the interaction between superconductivity and magnetism.

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  • Shuichi NAGASAWA, Masamitsu TANAKA, Naoki TAKEUCHI, Yuki YAMANASHI, Sh ...
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020SUP0001
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2021
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    We developed a Nb 4-layer process for fabricating superconducting integrated circuits that involves using caldera planarization to increase the flexibility and reliability of the fabrication process. We call this process the planarized high-speed standard process (PHSTP). Planarization enables us to flexibly adjust most of the Nb and SiO2 film thicknesses; we can select reduced film thicknesses to obtain larger mutual coupling depending on the application. It also reduces the risk of intra-layer shorts due to etching residues at the step-edge regions. We describe the detailed process flows of the planarization for the Josephson junction layer and the evaluation of devices fabricated with PHSTP. The results indicated no short defects or degradation in junction characteristics and good agreement between designed and measured inductances and resistances. We also developed single-flux-quantum (SFQ) and adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic cell libraries and tested circuits fabricated with PHSTP. We found that the designed circuits operated correctly. The SFQ shift-registers fabricated using PHSTP showed a high yield. Numerical simulation results indicate that the AQFP gates with increased mutual coupling by the planarized layer structure increase the maximum interconnect length between gates.

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  • Mitsuyoshi KISHIHARA, Masaya TAKEUCHI, Akinobu YAMAGUCHI, Yuichi UTSUM ...
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020ECP5043
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The microfabrication technique based on synchrotron radiation (SR) direct etching process has recently been applied to construct PTFE microstructures. This paper proposes a PTFE substrate integrated waveguide (PTFE SIW). It is expected that the PTFE SIW contributes to the improvement of the structural strength. A rectangular through-hole is introduced taking the advantage of the SR direct etching process. First, a PTFE SIW for the Q-band is designed. Then, a cruciform 3-dB directional coupler consisting of the PTFE SIW is designed and fabricated by the SR direct etching process. The validity of the PTFE SIW coupler is confirmed by measuring the frequency characteristics of the S-parameters. The mechanical strength of the PTFE SIW and the peeling strength of its Au film are also additionally investigated.

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  • Koichi MAEZAWA, Masayuki MORI
    Type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2020ECS6026
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 15, 2021
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    Frequency delta sigma modulation (FDSM) is a unique analog to digital conversion technique featuring large dynamic range with wide frequency band width. It can be used for high performance digital-output sensors, if the oscillator in the FDSM is replaced by a variable frequency oscillator whose frequency depends on a certain external physical quantity. One of the most important parameters governing the performance of these sensors is a phase noise of the oscillator. The phase noise is an essential error source in the FDSM, and it is quite important for this type of sensors because they use a high frequency oscillator and an extremely large oversampling ratio. In this paper, we will discuss the quantitative effects of the phase noise on the FDSM output on the basis of a simple model. The model was validated with experiments for three types of oscillators.

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  • Masaru Sato, Yoshitaka Niida, Atsushi Yamada, Junji Kotani, Shiro Ozak ...
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMI0001
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 12, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This paper presents recent progress on high frequency and wide bandwidth GaN high power amplifiers (PAs) that are usable for high-data-rate wireless communications and modern radar systems. The key devices and design techniques for PA are described in this paper. The results of the state-of-the art GaN PAs for microwave to millimeter-wave applications and design methodology for ultra-wideband GaN PAs are shown. In order to realize high output power density, InAlGaN/GaN HEMTs were employed. An output power density of 14.8 W/mm in S-band was achieved which is 1.5 times higher than that of the conventional AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. This technique was applied to the millimeter-wave GaN PAs, and a measured power density at 96 GHz was 3 W/mm. The modified Angelov model was employed for a millimeter-wave design. W-band GaN MMIC achieved the maximum Pout of 1.15 W under CW operation. The PA with Lange coupler achieved 2.6 W at 94 GHz. The authors also developed a wideband PA. A power combiner with an impedance transformation function based on the transmission line transformer (TLT) technique was adopted for the wideband PA design. The fabricated PA exhibited an average Pout of 233 W, an average PAE of 42 %, in the frequency range of 0.5 GHz to 2.1 GHz.

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  • Yohei MORISHITA, Sangyeop LEE, Toshihiro TERAOKA, Ruibing DONG, Yuichi ...
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMP0005
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 26, 2021
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This paper demonstrates 300 GHz terahertz wireless communication using CMOS transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) modules targeting sixth-generation (6G). To extend communication distance, CMOS modules with WR-3.4 waveguide interface and a high-gain antenna of 40 dBi Cassegrain antenna are designed, achieving 36 Gbps throughput at a 1m communication distance. Besides, in order to support orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), a self-heterodyne architecture is introduced, which effectively cancels the phase noise in multi-carrier modulation. As a proof-of-concept (PoC), the paper successfully demonstrates real-time video transfer at a 10m communication distance using fifth-generation (5G) based OFDM at the 300 GHz frequency band.

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  • Akira KITAYAMA, Akira KURIYAMA, Hideyuki NAGAISHI, Hiroshi KURODA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMP0006
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 12, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Long-range radars (LRRs) for higher level autonomous driving (AD) will require more antennas than simple driving assistance. The point at issue here is 50-60 % of the LRR module area is used for antennas. To miniaturize LRR modules, we use horn and lens antenna with highly efficient gain. In this paper, we propose two high-density implementation techniques for radio-frequency (RF) front-end using horn and lens antennas. In the first technique, the gap between antennas was eliminated by taking advantage of the high isolation performance of horn and lens antennas. In the second technique, the RF front-end including micro-strip-lines, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, and peripheral parts is placed in the valley area of each horn. We fabricated a prototype LRR operating at 77 GHz with only one printed circuit board (PCB). To detect vehicles horizontally and vertically, this LRR has a minimum antenna configuration of one Tx antenna and four Rx antennas placed in 2×2 array, and 30 mm thickness. Evaluation results revealed that vehicles could be detected up to 320 m away and that the horizontal and vertical angle error was less than +/- 0.2 degrees, which is equivalent to the vehicle width over 280 m. Thus, horn and lens antennas implemented using the proposed techniques are very suitable for higher level AD LRRs.

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  • Weirong Wang, Guohua Liu, Zhiwei Zhang, Zhiqun Cheng
    Type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2020ECS6029
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 10, 2021
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    This letter proposes a power amplifier (PA) with compact matching network. This structure is a parallel dual radial microstrip line in the output matching network branch. The input impedance expression based on the structure is deduced through theoretical analysis, and the load impedance that satisfies the class EFJ PA is obtained through the impedance expression. Compared with the traditional design method, this design method is simple and novel, and the structure is more compact. In order to further improve efficiency and expand bandwidth, the input matching network adopts a stepped impedance matching method. In order to verify the correctness of the design, a broadband high-efficiency PA was designed using GaN HEMT CGH40010F. The test results show that the drain efficiency is 61%-71% in the frequency band 1.4-3.8 GHz, the saturated output power is 40.3-41.8 dBm, and the size is 53x47 mm2.

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  • Mutsuo HIDAKA, Shuichi NAGASAWA
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2020SUI0002
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 03, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This review provides a current overview of the fabrication processes for superconducting digital circuits at CRAVITY (clean room for analog and digital superconductivity) at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. CRAVITY routinely fabricates superconducting digital circuits using three types of fabrication processes and supplies several thousand chips to its collaborators each year. Researchers at CRAVITY have focused on improving the controllability and uniformity of device parameters and the reliability, which means reducing defects. These three aspects are important for the correct operation of large-scale digital circuits. The current technologies used at CRAVITY permit ±10% controllability over the critical current density (Jc) of Josephson junctions (JJs) with respect to the design values, while the critical current (Ic) uniformity is within 1σ=2% for JJs with areas exceeding 1.0 μm2 and the defect density is on the order of one defect for every 100,000 JJs.

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  • Aiying Guo, Feng Ran, Jianhua Zhang
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020ECP5032
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 26, 2021
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    In order to upgrade the refresh rate about High-Resolution (1280×1024) OLED-on-Silicon (OLEDoS) microdisplay, this paper discusses one compression scan strategy by reducing scan time redundancy. This scan strategy firstly compresses the low-bit gray level scan serial as one unit; second, the scan unit is embedded into the high-bit gray level serial and new scan sequence is generated. Furthermore, micro-display platform is designed to verify the scan strategy performance. The experiment shows that this scan strategy can deal with 144Hz refresh rate, which is obviously faster than the traditional scan strategy.

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  • Hiroyuki SHIBATA
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2020SUI0001
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 24, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    One of the highest performing single-photon detectors in the visible and near-infrared regions is the superconducting nanostrip photon detector (SNSPD or SSPD), which usually uses NbN or NbTiN as the superconductor. Using other superconductors may significantly improve, for example, the operating temperature and count rate characteristics. This paper briefly reviews the current state of the potential, characteristics, thin film growth, and nanofabrication process of SNSPD using various superconductors.

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  • Andrei GREBENNIKOV, James WONG, Hiroaki DEGUCHI
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MMI0003
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 24, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In this paper, the high-power high-efficiency asymmetric Doherty power amplifiers based on high-voltage GaN HEMT devices with internal input matching for base station applications are proposed and described. For a three-way 1:2 asymmetric Doherty structures, an exceptionally high output power of 1 kW with a peak efficiency of 83% and a linear flat power gain of about 15 dB was achieved in a frequency band of 2.11-2.17 GHz, whereas an output power of 59.5 dBm with a peak efficiency of 78% and linear power gain of 12 dB and an output power of 59.2 dBm with a peak efficiency of 65% and a linear power gain of 13 dB were obtained across 1.8-2.2 GHz. To provide a high-efficiency broadband operation, the concept of inverted Doherty structure is applied and described in detail. By using a high-power broadband inverted Doherty amplifier architecture with a 2×120-W GaN HEMT transistor, a saturated power of greater than 54 dBm, a linear power gain of greater than 13 dB and a drain efficiency of greater than 50% at 7-dB power backoff in a frequency bandwidth of 1.8-2.7 GHz were obtained.

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  • Koichi NARAHARA
    Type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2020ECS6021
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2021
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    A scheme is proposed for generation of large-amplitude short pulses using a transmission line with regularly spaced series-connected tunnel diodes (TDs). In the case where the loaded TD is unique, it is established that the leading edge of the inputted pulse moves slower than the trailing edge, when the pulse amplitude exceeds the peak voltage of the loaded TD; therefore, the pulse width is autonomously reduced through propagation in the line. In this study, we find that this property is true even when the several series-connected TDs are loaded periodically. By these mechanisms, the TD line succeeds in generating large and short pulses. Herein, we clarify the design criteria of the TD line, together with both numerical and experimental validation.

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  • Kazuki Isoda, Ryuga Yanagihara, Yoshitaka Kitamoto, Masahiko Hara, Hir ...
    Type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2020ECS6027
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2021
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    Copper sulfide nanoparticles were successfully prepared by laser ablation in liquid. CuS powders in deionized water were irradiated with nanosecond-pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, SHG) to prepare nanoparticles. Prepared nanoparticles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorospectrometer. According to the results of SEM and DLS, the primary and secondary particle size was decreased with the increase in laser fluence of laser ablation in liquid. The ratio of Cu and S of prepared nanoparticles were not changed. The absorbance of prepared copper sulfide nanoparticles in water was increased with the increase in laser fluence.

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  • Shinpei OSHIMA, Hiroto MARUYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020ECP5033
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 15, 2021
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    In this paper, we propose a design method for a diplexer using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter, a multilayer ceramic filter, chip inductors, and chip capacitors. A controllable transmission zero can be created in the stopband by designing matching circuits based on the out-of-band characteristics of the SAW filter using this method. The proposed method can achieve good attenuation performance and a compact size because it does not use an additional resonator for creating the controllable transmission zero and the matching circuits are composed of only five components. A diplexer is designed for 2.4 GHz wireless systems and a global positioning system receiver using the proposed method. It is compact (8.0 mm × 8.0 mm), and the measurement results indicate good attenuation performance with the controllable transmission zero.

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  • Wenlun Zhang, Baokang Wang
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020ECP5042
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 15, 2021
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We design a silicon gate-all-around junctionless field-effect transistor (JLFET) using a step thickness gate oxide (GOX) by the Sentaurus technology computer-aided design simulation. We demonstrate the different gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) mechanism of the traditional inversion-mode field-effect transistor (IMFET) and JLFET. The off leakage in the IMFET is dominated by the parasitic bipolar junction transistor effect, whereas in the JLFET it is a result of the volume conduction due to the screening effect of the accumulated holes. With the introduction of a 4 nm thick-second GOX and remaining first GOX thickness of 1 nm, the tunneling generation is reduced at the channel-drain interface, leading to a decrease in the off current of the JLFET. A thicker second GOX has the total gate capacitance of JLFETs, where a 0.3 ps improved intrinsic delay is achieved. This alleviates the capacitive load of the transistor in the circuit applications. Finally, the short-channel effects of the step thickness GOX JLFET were investigated with a total gate length from 40 nm to 6 nm. The results indicate that the step thickness GOX JLFETs perform better on the on/off ratio and drain-induced barrier lowering but exhibit a small degradation on the subthreshold swing and threshold roll-off.

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  • Feifan Han, Kazunori Kobayashi, Safumi Suzuki, Hiroki Tanaka, Hidenari ...
    Type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2020ECS6020
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 15, 2021
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This paper theoretically presents that a terahertz (THz) oscillator using a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) and a rectangular cavity, which has previously been proposed, can radiate high output power by the impedance matching between RTD and load through metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitors. Based on an established equivalent-circuit model, an equation for output power has been deduced. By changing MIM capacitors, a matching point can be derived for various sizes of rectangular-cavity resonator. Simulation results show that high output power is possible by long cavity. For example, a high output power of 5 mW is expected at 1 THz.

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  • Takashi YASUI, Jun-ichiro SUGISAKA, Koichi HIRAYAMA
    Type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2020ECS6023
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 13, 2021
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In this study, we conduct guided mode analyses for chalcogenide glass channel waveguides using As2Se3 core and As2S3 lower cladding to determine their single-mode conditions across the astronomical N-band (8 — 12μm). The results reveal that a single-mode operation over the band can be achieved by choosing a suitable core-thickness.

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