IEICE Transactions on Electronics
Online ISSN : 1745-1353
Print ISSN : 0916-8524
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-39 of 39 articles from this issue
  • Futoshi KUROKI
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2024MMI0006
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 12, 2024
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    Nonradiative dielectric waveguide is a transmission medium for millimeter-wave integrated circuits, invented in Japan. This transmission line is characterized by low transmission loss and non-radiating nature in bends and discontinuities. It has been actively researched from 1980 to 2000, primarily at Tohoku University. This paper explains the fundamental characteristics, including passive and active circuits, and provides an overview of millimeter-wave systems such as gigabit-class ultra-high-speed data transmission applications and various radar applications. Furthermore, the performance in the THz frequency band, where future applications are anticipated, is also discussed.

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  • Jun FURUTA, Shotaro SUGITANI, Ryuichi NAKAJIMA, Takafumi ITO, Kazutosh ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ECP5045
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 10, 2024
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    Radiation-induced temporal errors become a significant issue for circuit reliability. We measured the pulse widths of radiation-induced single event transients (SETs) from pMOSFETs and nMOSFETs separately. Test results show that heavy-ion induced SET rates of nMOSFETs were twice as high as those of pMOSFETs and that neutron-induced SETs occurred only in nMOSFETs. It was confirmed that the SET distribution from inverter chains can be estimated using the SET distribution from pMOSFETs and nMOSFETs by considering the difference in load capacitance of the measurement circuits.

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  • Yuya Ichikawa, Ayumu Yamada, Naoko Misawa, Chihiro Matsui, Ken Takeuch ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023CTP0001
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    Integrating RGB and event sensors improves object detection accuracy, especially during the night, due to the high-dynamic range of event camera. However, introducing an event sensor leads to an increase in computational resources, which makes the implementation of RGB-event fusion multi-modal AI to CiM difficult. To tackle this issue, this paper proposes RGB-Event fusion Multi-modal analog Computation-in-Memory (CiM), called REM-CiM, for multi-modal edge object detection AI. In REM-CiM, two proposals about multi-modal AI algorithms and circuit implementation are co-designed. First, Memory capacity-Efficient Attentional Feature Pyramid Network (MEA-FPN), the model architecture for RGB-event fusion analog CiM, is proposed for parameter-efficient RGB-event fusion. Convolution-less bi-directional calibration (C-BDC) in MEA-FPN. extract important features of each modality with attention modules, while reducing the number of weight parameters by removing large convolutional operations from conventional BDC. Proposed MEA-FPN w/ C-BDC achieves a 76% reduction of parameters while maintaining mean Average Precision (mAP) degradation to <2.3% during both day and night, compared with Attentional FPN fusion (A-FPN), a conventional BDC-adopted FPN fusion. Second, the low-bit quantization with clipping (LQC) is proposed to reduce area/energy. Proposed REM-CiM with MEA-FPN and LQC achieves almost the same memory cells, 21% less ADC area, 24% less ADC energy and 0.7% higher mAP than conventional FPN fusion CiM without LQC.

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  • Ayumu Yamada, Zhiyuan Huang, Naoko Misawa, Chihiro Matsui, Ken Takeuch ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023CTP0002
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    In this work, fluctuation patterns of ReRAM current are classified automatically by proposed fluctuation pattern classifier (FPC). FPC is trained with artificially created dataset to overcome the difficulties of measured current signals, including the annotation cost and imbalanced data amount. Using FPC, fluctuation occurrence under different write conditions is analyzed for both HRS and LRS current. Based on the measurement and classification results, physical models of fluctuations are established.

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  • Yoshinori ITOTAGAWA, Koma ATSUMI, Hikaru SEBE, Daisuke KANEMOTO, Tetsu ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023CTP0004
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    This paper describes a programmable differential bandgap reference (PD-BGR) for ultra-low-power IoT (Internet-of-Things) edge node devices. The PD-BGR consists of a current generator (CG) and differential voltage generator (DVG). The CG is based on a bandgap reference (BGR) and generates an operating current and a voltage, while the DVG generates another voltage from the current. A differential voltage reference can be obtained by taking the voltage difference from the voltages. The PD-BGR can produce a programmable differential output voltage by changing the multipliers of MOSFETs in a differential pair and resistance with digital codes. Simulation results showed that the proposed PD-BGR can generate 25- to 200-mV reference voltages with a 25-mV step within a ±0.7% temperature inaccuracy in a temperature range from -20 to 100°C. A Monte Carlo simulation showed that the coefficient of the variation in the reference was within 1.1%. Measurement results demonstrated that our prototype chips can generate stable programmable differential output voltages, almost the same results as those of the simulation. The average power consumption was only 88.4 nW, with a voltage error of -4/+3 mV with 5 samples.

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  • Hikaru SEBE, Daisuke KANEMOTO, Tetsuya HIROSE
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023CTP0005
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    Extremely low-voltage charge pump (ELV-CP) and its dedicated multi-stage driver (MS-DRV) for sub-60-mV thermoelectric energy harvesting are proposed. The proposed MS-DRV utilizes the output voltages of each ELV-CP to efficiently boost the control clock signals. The boosted clock signals are used as switching signals for each ELV-CP and MS-DRV to turn switch transistors on and off. Moreover, reset transistors are added to the MS-DRV to ensure an adequate non-overlapping period between switching signals. Measurement results demonstrated that the proposed MS-DRV can generate boosted clock signals of 350 mV from input voltage of 60 mV. The ELV-CP can boost the input voltage of 100 mV with 10.7% peak efficiency. The proposed ELV-CP and MS-DRV can boost the low input voltage of 56 mV.

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  • Zhibo CAO, Pengfei HAN, Hongming LYU
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ECP5049
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    This paper introduces a computer-aided low-power design method for tapered buffers that address given load capacitances, output transition times, and source impedances. Cross-voltage-domain tapered buffers involving a low-voltage domain in the frontier stages and a high-voltage domain in the posterior stages are further discussed which breaks the trade-off between the energy dissipation and the driving capability in conventional designs. As an essential circuit block, a dedicated analytical model for the level-shifter is proposed. The energy-optimized tapered buffer design is verified for different source and load conditions in a 180-nm CMOS process. The single-VDD buffer model achieves an average inaccuracy of 8.65% on the transition loss compared with Spice simulation results. Cross-voltage tapered buffers can be optimized to further remarkably reduce the energy consumption. The study finds wide applications in energy-efficient switching-mode analog applications.

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  • Takuya SAKAMOTO, Itsuki IWATA, Toshiki MINAMI, Takuya MATSUMOTO
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2024MMI0002
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    There has been a growing interest in the application of radar technology to the monitoring of humans and animals and their positions, motions, activities, and vital signs. Radar can be used, for example, to remotely measure vital signs such as respiration and heartbeat without contact. Radar-based human sensing is expected to be adopted in a variety of fields, such as medicine, healthcare, and entertainment, but what can be realized by radar-based animal sensing? This paper reviews the latest research trends in the noncontact sensing of animals using radar systems. We also present examples of our past radar experiments for the respiratory measurement of monkeys and the heartbeat measurement of chimpanzees. The trends in this field are reviewed in terms of the target animal species, type of vital sign, and radar type and selection of frequencies.

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  • Koji YAMANAKA, Kazuhiro IYOMASA, Takumi SUGITANI, Eigo KUWATA, Shintar ...
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2024MMI0004
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    GaN solid state power amplifiers (SSPA) for wireless power transfer and microwave heating have been reviewed. For wireless power transfer, 9W output power with 79% power added efficiency at 5.8GHz has been achieved. For microwave heating, 450W output power with 70% drain efficiency at 2.45GHz has been achieved. Microwave power concentration and uniform microwave heating by phase control of multiple SSPAs are demonstrated.

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  • Minoru MIZUTANI, Takashi OHIRA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024MMP0001
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    This paper presents a comprehensive design approach to load-independent radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers. We project the zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) and zero-voltage-derivative-switching (ZVDS) load impedances onto a Smith chart, and find that their loci exhibit geodesic arcs. We exploit a two-port reactive network to convert the geodesic locus into another geodesic. This is named geodesic-to-geodesic (G2G) impedance conversion, and the power amplifier that employs G2G conversion is called class-G2G amplifier. We comprehensively explore the possible circuit topologies, and find that there are twenty G2G networks to create class-G2G amplifiers. We also find out that the class-G2G amplifier behaves like a transformer or a gyrator converting from dc to RF. The G2G design theory is verified via a circuit simulation. We also verified the theory through an experiment employing a prototype 100W amplifier at 6.78 MHz. We conclude that the presented design approach is quite comprehensive and useful for the future development of high-efficiency RF power amplifiers.

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  • Katsumi KAWAI, Naoki SHINOHARA, Tomohiko MITANI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024MMP0002
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    This study introduces a novel single-diode rectenna, enhancing the rf-dc conversion efficiency using harmonic control of the antenna impedance. We employ source-pull simulations encompassing the fundamental frequency and the harmonics to achieve a highly efficient rectenna. The results of the source-pull simulations delineate the sourceimpedance ranges required for enhanced efficiency at each harmonic. Based on the source-pull simulation results, we designed two inverted-F antenna with input impedances within and without these identified source impedance ranges. Experimental results show that the proposed rectenna has a maximum rf-dc conversion efficiency of 75.9% at the fundamental frequency of 920 MHz, an input power of 10.8 dBm, and a load resistance of 1 kΩ, which is higher than that of the comparative rectenna without harmonic control of the antenna impedance. This study demonstrates that the proposed rectenna achieves high efficiency through the direct connection of the antenna and the single diode, along with harmonic control of the antenna impedance.

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  • Baku TAKAHARA, Tomohiko MITANI, Naoki SHINOHARA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024MMP0005
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    We propose microwave heating via electromagnetic coupling using zeroth-order resonators (ZORs) to extend the uniform heating area. ZORs can generate resonant modes with a wavenumber of 0, which corresponds to an infinite guide wavelength. Under this condition, uniform heating is expected because the resulting standing waves would not have nodes or antinodes. In the design proposed in this paper, two ZORs fabricated on dielectric substrates are arranged to face each other for electromagnetic coupling, and a sample placed between the resonators is heated. A single ZOR was investigated using a 3D electromagnetic simulator, and the resonant frequency and electric field distribution of the simulated ZOR were confirmed to be in good agreement with those of the fabricated ZOR. Simulations of two ZORs facing each other were then conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed system as a heating apparatus. It was found that a resonator spacing of 25mm is suitable for uniform heating. Heating simulations of SiC and Al2O3 sheets were performed with the obtained structure. The heating uniformity was evaluated by the width L50% over which the power loss distribution exceeds half the maximum value. This evaluation index was equal to 0.397λ0 for SiC and 0.409λ0 for Al2O3, both of which exceed λ0/4, the distance between a neighboring node and antinode of a standing wave, where λ0 is the free-space wavelength. Therefore, the proposed heating apparatus is effective for uniform microwave heating. Because of the different electrical parameters of the heated materials, SiC can be easily heated, whereas Al2O3 heats little. Finally, heating experiments were performed on each of these materials. Good uniformity in temperature was obtained for both SiC and Al2O3 sheets.

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  • Akihiko ISHIWATA, Yasumasa NAKA, Masaya TAMURA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024MMP0006
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    The load-independent zero-voltage switching class-E inverter has garnered considerable interest as an essential component in wireless power transfer systems. This inverter achieves high efficiency across a broad spectrum of load conditions by incorporating a load adjustment circuit (LAC) subsequent to the resonant filter. Nevertheless, the presence of the LAC influences the output impedance of the inverter, thereby inducing a divergence between the targeted and observed output power, even in ideal lossless simulations. Consequently, iterative adjustments to component values are required via an LC element implementation. We introduce a novel design methodology that incorporates an external quality factor on the side of the resonant filter, inclusive of the LAC. Thus, the optimized circuit achieves the intended output power without necessitating alterations in component values.

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  • Atsushi Fukuda, Hiroto Yamamoto, Junya Matsudaira, Sumire Aoki, Yasuno ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024MMP0007
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    This paper proposes a novel configuration for a wideband single-carrier transmitter using a sub-terahertz frequency. For wideband single-carrier transmission over a bandwidth of several gigahertz, the frequency response non-flatness derived from transmitter components in an operating band seriously deteriorates the transmission quality due to inter-symbol interference. A promising approach to address this problem is equalizing the frequency response non-flatness at the transmitter. The proposed novel configuration has a feedback route for calculating the inverse frequency response and multiplying it with a transmission signal spectrum in the frequency domain. Moreover, we verify that employing the proposed transmitter configuration simplifies the receiver configuration by lowering the calculation complexity to minimize the inter-symbol interference to meet the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio requirements. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed configuration, the transmission quality obtained using the proposed configuration is measured and evaluated. Experimental results confirm that the proposed configuration improves the error vector magnitude value to over 5 dB for a 10 Gbaud transmission and the transmission data rate of 25 Gbps.

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  • Ting DING, Jiandong ZHU, Jing YANG, Xingmeng JIANG, Chengcheng LIU
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024MMP0004
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 25, 2024
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    Considering the non-convexity of hybrid precoding and the hardware constraints of practical systems, a hybrid precoding architecture, which combines limited-resolution overlapped phase shifter networks with lens array, is investigated. The analogy part is a beam selection network composed of overlapped low-resolution phase shifter networks. In particular, in the proposed hybrid precoding algorithm, the analog precoding improves array gain by utilizing the quantization beam alignment method, whereas the digital precoding schemes multiplexing gain by adopting a Wiener Filter precoding scheme with a minimum mean square error criterion. Finally, in the sparse scattering millimeter-wave channel for the uniform linear array, the proposed method is compared with the existing scheme by computer simulation by using the ideal channel state information and the non-ideal channel state information. It is concluded that the proposed scheme performs better in low signal-to-noise regions and can achieve a good compromise between system performance and hardware complexity.

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  • Fan Liu, Zhewang Ma, Masataka Ohira, Dongchun Qiao, Guosheng Pu, Masar ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ESP0003
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 22, 2024
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    In this paper, a precise design method of high-order bandpass filters (BPFs) with complicated coupling topologies is proposed, and is demonstrated through the design of an 11-pole BPF using TM010 mode dielectric resonators (DRs). A novel Z-shaped coupling structure is proposed which avoids the mixed use of TM010 and TM01δ modes and enables the tuning and assembling of the filter much easier. The coupling topology of the BPF includes three cascade triplets (CTs) of DRs, and both the capacitive and inductive couplings in the CTs are designed independently tunable, which produce consequently three controllable transmission zeros on both sides of the passband of filter. A procedure of mapping the coupling matrix of BPF to its physical dimensions is developed, and an iterative optimization of these physical dimensions is implemented to achieve best performance. The design of the 11-pole BPF is shown highly precise by the excellent agreement between the electromagnetic simulated response of the filter and the desired target specifications.

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  • Ludovico MINATI
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2023CTI0001
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 11, 2024
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    Recent years have seen a general resurgence of interest in analog signal processing and computing architectures. In addition, extensive theoretical and experimental literature on chaos and analog chaotic oscillators exists. One peculiarity of these circuits is the ability to generate, despite their structural simplicity, complex spatiotemporal patterns when several of them are brought towards synchronization via coupling mechanisms. While by no means a systematic survey, this paper provides a personal perspective on this area. After briefly covering design aspects and the synchronization phenomena that can arise, a selection of results exemplifying potential applications is presented, including in robot control, distributed sensing, reservoir computing, and data augmentation. Despite their interesting properties, the industrial applications of these circuits remain largely to be realized, seemingly due to a variety of technical and organizational factors including a paucity of design and optimization techniques. Some reflections are given regarding this situation, the potential relevance to discontinuous innovation in analog circuit design of chaotic oscillators taken both individually and as synchronized networks, and the factors holding back the transition to higher levels of technology readiness.

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  • Minoru Fujishima
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2023CTI0002
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 08, 2024
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    In this paper, we delve into wireless communications in the 300 GHz band, focusing in particular on the continuous bandwidth of 44 GHz from 252 GHz to 296 GHz, positioning it as a pivotal element in the trajectory toward 6G communications. While terahertz communications have traditionally been praised for the high speeds they can achieve using their wide bandwidth, it will also be shown that they have the potential to achieve high efficiency and support numerous simultaneous connectivity. To this end, new performance metrics, EIRPλ and EINFλ, are introduced as important benchmarks for transmitter and receiver performance, and their consistency is discussed. We then show that, assuming conventional bandwidth and communication capacity, the communication distance is independent of carrier frequency. Located between radio waves and light in the electromagnetic spectrum, terahertz waves promise to usher in a new era of wireless communications characterized not only by high-speed communication, but also by convenience and efficiency. Improvements in antenna gain, beam focusing, and precise beam steering are essential to its realization. As these technologies advance, the paradigm of wireless communications is expected to be transformed. The synergistic effects of antenna gain enhancement, beam focusing, and steering will not only push high-speed communications to unprecedented levels, but also lay the foundation for a wireless communications landscape defined by unparalleled convenience and efficiency. This paper will discuss a future in which terahertz communications will reshape the contours of wireless communications as the realization of such technological breakthroughs draws near.

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  • Hyunuk AHN, Akito IGUCHI, Keita MORIMOTO, Yasuhide TSUJI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ESP0002
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 08, 2024
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    We develop new 3D full vectorial finite element bidirectional beam propagation method (3DFV-BiBPM) in order to handle the nonradiative dielectric waveguide (NRD guide) components that have arbitrary cross sectional profiles. The BiBPM is one of the transfer-matrix-based methods where only transverse cross sections have to be discretized using the finite difference or the finite element scheme, and it can treat backward and multiple reflections as opposed to the standard BPM. An NRD guide with air-gap and a filter with a sapphire resonator are numerically analyze considering dielectric losses to investigate the validity of our approach.

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  • Kensei ITAYA, Ryosuke OZAKI, Tsuneki YAMASAKI
    Article type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ESS0001
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 08, 2024
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    In this paper, we propose the transient analysis technique to analyze the multilayered dispersive media by using a combination of fast inversion Laplace transform (FILT) and the continued fraction expanded methods. Numerical results are given by the reflection response, inside-time response waveforms, and electric field distributions of the reflection component. Further, we verify the calculation accuracy of FILT method for the two types using a convergence test.

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  • Akira KAWAHARA, Jun SHIBAYAMA, Kazuhiro FUJITA, Junji YAMAUCHI, Hisama ...
    Article type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ESS0004
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 01, 2024
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    Numerical dispersion property is investigated for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on the iterated Crank-Nicolson (ICN) scheme. The numerical dispersion relation is newly derived from the amplification matrix and its property is discussed with attention to the eigenvalue of the matrix. It is shown that the ICN-FDTD method is conditionally stable but slightly dissipative.

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  • Seiya Kishimoto, Ryoya Ogino, Kenta Arase, Shinichiro Ohnuki
    Article type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ESS0006
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 29, 2024
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    This paper introduces a computational approach for transient analysis of extensive scattering problems. This novel method is based on the combination of physical optics (PO) and the fast inverse Laplace transform (FILT). PO is a technique for analyzing electromagnetic scattering from large-scale objects. We modify PO for application in the complex frequency domain, where the scattered fields are evaluated. The complex frequency function is efficiently transformed into the time domain using FILT. The effectiveness of this combination is demonstrated through large-scale analysis and transient response for a short pulse incidence. The accuracy is investigated and validated by comparison with reference solutions.

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  • Yasuo OHTERA
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ESI0001
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 22, 2024
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    We report on a method for reconstructing the spectrum of incident light from a single image captured by a snapshot multispectral camera. The camera has a dielectric multilayer multispectral filter array (MSFA) integrated onto a CMOS image sensor. Sparse estimation algorithm was applied to reconstruct the spectrum. Using Gaussian functions with various bandwidths and central wavelengths as the bases matrix, the algorithm has been shown to be highly accurate for estimating the spectra of both narrowband monochromatic and broadband fluorescent light emitting diodes (LEDs), regardless of the wavelength band.

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  • Tomohiro Kumaki, Akihiko Hirata, Tubasa Saijo, Yuma Kawamoto, Tadao Na ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ECP5024
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 08, 2024
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    We achieved 10-Gbit/s data transmission using a cutting-edge 120-GHz-band high-speed contactless communication technology, which allows seamless connection to a local area network (LAN) by simply placing devices on a desk. We propose a glass substrate-integrated rectangular waveguide that can control the permeability of the top surface to 120-GHz signals by contacting a dielectric substrate with the substrate. The top surface of the rectangular waveguide was replaced with a glass substrate on which split-ring resonators (SRRs) were integrated. The transmission loss of the waveguide with a glass substrate was 2.5 dB at 125 GHz. When a dielectric sheet with a line pattern formed on the contact surface was in contact with a glass substrate, the transmission loss from the waveguide to the dielectric sheet was 19.2 dB at 125 GHz. We achieved 10-Gbit/s data transmission by contacting a dielectric sheet to the SRR-integrated glass substrate.

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  • Haonan CHEN, Akito IGUCHI, Yasuhide TSUJI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ESP0004
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 05, 2024
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    In order to calculate photonic devices with slowly varying waveguide structure along propagation direction, we develop finite element beam propagation method (FE-BPM) with coordinate transformation. In this approach, converting a longitudinally varying waveguide into the equivalent straight waveguide, cumbersome processes in FE-BPM, such as mesh updating and field interpolation processes at each propagation step, can be avoided. We employ this simulation technique in shape optimization of photonic devices and show design examples of mode converter. To show the validity of this approach, the calculated results of designed devices are compared with the finite element method (FEM) or the standard FE-BPM.

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  • Ryuichi NAKAJIMA, Takafumi ITO, Shotaro SUGITANI, Tomoya KII, Mitsunor ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023CDP0004
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 23, 2024
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    We evaluated soft-error tolerance by heavy-ion irradiation test on three-types of flip-flops (FFs) named the standard FF (STDFF), the dual feedback recovery FF (DFRFF), and the DFRFF with long delay (DFRFFLD) in 22 and 65 nm fully-depleted silicon on insulator (FD-SOI) technologies. The guard-gate (GG) structure in DFRFF mitigates soft errors. A single event transient (SET) pulse is removed by the C-element with the signal delayed by the GG structure. DFRFFLD increases the GG delay by adding two more inverters as delay elements. We investigated the effectiveness of the GG structure in 22 and 65 nm. In 22 nm, Kr (40.3 MeV-cm2/mg) and Xe (67.2 MeV-cm2/mg) irradiation tests revealed that DFRFFLD has sufficient soft-error tolerance in outer space. In 65 nm, the relationship between GG delay and CS reveals the GG delay time which no error was observed under Kr irradiation.

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  • Keiji GOTO, Toru KAWANO, Munetoshi IWAKIRI, Tsubasa KAWAKAMI, Kazuki N ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ECP5040
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 23, 2024
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    This paper proposes a scatterer information estimation method using numerical data for the response waveform of a backward transient scattering field for both E- and H-polarizations when a two-dimensional (2-D) coated metal cylinder is selected as a scatterer. It is assumed that a line source and an observation point are placed at different locations. The four types of scatterer information covered in this paper are the relative permittivity of a surrounding medium, the relative permittivity of a coating medium layer and its thickness, and the radius of a coated metal cylinder. Specifically, a time-domain saddle-point technique (TD-SPT) is used to derive scatterer information estimation formulae from the amplitude intensity ratios (AIRs) of adjacent backward transient scattering field components. The estimates are obtained by substituting the numerical data of the response waveforms of the backward transient scattering field components into the estimation formulae and performing iterative calculations. Furthermore, a minimum thickness of a coating medium layer for which the estimation method is valid is derived, and two applicable conditions for the estimation method are proposed. The effectiveness of the scatterer information estimation method is verified by comparing the estimates with the set values. The noise tolerance and convergence characteristics of the estimation method and the method of controlling the estimation accuracy are also discussed.

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  • Risheng Qin, Hua Kuang, He Jiang, Hui Yu, Hong Li, Zhuan Li
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ECP5038
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 20, 2023
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    This paper proposes a determination method of the cascaded number for lumped parameter models (LPMs) of the transmission lines. The LPM is used to simulate long-distance transmission lines, and the cascaded number significantly impacts the simulation results. Currently, there is a lack of a system-level determination method of the cascaded number for LPMs. Based on the theoretical analysis and eigenvalue decomposition of network matrix, this paper discusses the error in resonance characteristics between distributed parameter model and LPMs. Moreover, it is deduced that optimal cascaded numbers of the cascaded π-type and T-type LPMs are the same, and the Г-type LPM has a lowest analog accuracy. The principle that the maximum simulation frequency is less than the first resonance frequency of each segment is presented. According to the principle, optimal cascaded numbers of cascaded π-type, T-type, and Г-type LPMs are obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed determination method is verified by simulation.

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  • Yoshihiro NAKA, Masahiko NISHIMOTO, Mitsuhiro YOKOTA
    Article type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ECS6008
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 07, 2023
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    An efficient optical power splitter constructed by a metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguide with a resonator structure has been analyzed. The method of solution is the finite difference time domain (FD-TD) method with the piecewise linear recursive convolution (PLRC) method. The resonator structure consists of input/output waveguides and a narrow waveguide with a T-junction. The power splitter with the resonator structure is expressed by an equivalent transmission-line circuit. We can find that the transmittance and reflectance calculated by the FD-TD method and the equivalent circuit are matched when the difference in width between the input/output waveguides and the narrow waveguide is small. It is also shown that the transmission wavelength can be adjusted by changing the narrow waveguide lengths that satisfy the impedance matching condition in the equivalent circuit.

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  • Mikihiko Oogane
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2023SEI0001
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 04, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The magnetic field resolution of the tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) sensors has been improving and it reaches below 1.0 pT/Hz0.5 at low frequency. The real-time measurement of the magnetocardiography (MCG) and the measurement of the magnetoencephalography (MEG) have been demonstrated by developed TMR sensors. Although the MCG and MEG have been applied to diagnosis of diseases, the conventional MCG/MEG system using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) cannot measure the signal by touching the body, the body must be fixed, and maintenance costs are huge. The MCG/MEG system with TMR sensors operating at room temperature have the potential to solve these problems. In addition, it has the great advantage that it does not require a special magnetic shielded room. Further developments are expected to progress to maximize these unique features of TMR sensors.

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  • Yosuke ITO, Tatsuya GOTO, Takuma HORI
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2023SEI0002
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 04, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In recent years, measuring biomagnetic fields in the Earth's field by differential measurements of scalar-mode OPMs have been actively attempted. In this study, the sensitivity of the scalar-mode OPMs under the geomagnetic environment in the laboratory was studied by numerical simulation. Although the noise level of the scalar-mode OPM in the laboratory environment was calculated to be \SI[per-mode=symbol]{104}{\pico\tesla\per\sqrt{\hertz}}, the noise levels using the first-order and the second-order differential configurations were found to be \SI[per-mode=symbol]{529}{\femto\tesla\per\centi\metre\per\sqrt{\hertz}} and \SI[per-mode=symbol]{17.2}{\femto\tesla\per\centi\metre^2\per\sqrt{\hertz}}, respectively. This result indicated that scalar-mode OPMs can measure very weak magnetic fields such as MEG without high-performance magnetic shield roomns. We also studied the operating conditions by varying repetition frequency and temperature. We found that scalar-mode OPMs have an upper limit of repetition frequency and temperature, and that the repetition frequency should be set below 4 kHz and the temperature should be set below 120 °C.

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  • Siyao Chu, Bin Wang, Xinwei Niu
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ECP5034
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: November 30, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To reduce the common mode voltage (CMV), suppress the CMV spikes, and improve the steady-state performance, a simplified reactive torque model predictive control (RT-MPC) for induction motors (IMs) is proposed. The proposed prediction model can effectively reduce the complexity of the control algorithm with the direct torque control (DTC) based voltage vector (VV) preselection approach. In addition, the proposed CMV suppression strategy can restrict the CMV within ±Vdc/6, and does not require the exclusion of non-adjacent non-opposite VVs, thus resulting in the system showing good steady-state performance. The effectiveness of the proposed design has been tested and verified by the practical experiment. The proposed algorithm can reduce the execution time by an average of 26.33% compared to the major competitors.

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  • Shotaro YASUMORI, Seiya MORIKAWA, Takanori SATO, Tadashi KAWAI, Akira ...
    Article type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ECS6011
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: November 29, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    An optical mode multiplexerwas newly designed and fabricated using LiNbO3 waveguides. The multiplexer consists of an asymmetric directional coupler capable of achieving the phase-matching condition by the voltage adjustment. The mode conversion efficiency between TM0 and TM1 modes was quantitatively measured to be 0.86 at maximum.

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  • Dongzhu Li, Zhijie Zhan, Rei Sumikawa, Mototsugu Hamada, Atsutake Kosu ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023LHP0001
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: November 24, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 0.13mJ/prediction with 68.6% accuracy wired-logic deep neural network (DNN) processor is developed in a single 16-nm field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. Compared with conventional von-Neumann architecture DNN processors, the energy efficiency is greatly improved by eliminating DRAM/BRAM access. A technical challenge for conventional wired-logic processors is the large amount of hardware resources required for implementing large-scale neural networks. To implement a large-scale convolutional neural network (CNN) into a single FPGA chip, two technologies are introduced: (1) a sparse neural network known as a non-linear neural network (NNN), and (2) a newly developed raster-scan wired-logic architecture. Furthermore, a novel high-level synthesis (HLS) technique for wired-logic processor is proposed. The proposed HLS technique enables the automatic generation of two key components: (1) Verilog-hardware description language (HDL) code for a raster-scan-based wired-logic processor and (2) test bench code for conducting equivalence checking. The automated process significantly mitigates the time and effort required for implementation and debugging. Compared with the state-of-the-art FPGA-based processor, 238 times better energy efficiency is achieved with only a slight decrease in accuracy on the CIFAR-100 task. In addition, 7 times better energy efficiency is achieved compared with the state-of-the-art network-optimized application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC).

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  • Takako MIZOGUCHI, Akihiko KANDORI, Keiji ENPUKU
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023SEP0001
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: November 21, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Simple and quick tests at medical clinics have become increasingly important. Magnetic sensing techniques have been developed to detect biomarkers using magnetic nanoparticles in liquid-phase assays. We developed a biomarker assay that involves using an alternating current (AC) susceptibility measurement system that uses functional magnetic particles and magnetic sensing technology. We also developed compact biomarker measuring equipment to enable quick testing. Our assay is a one-step homogeneous assay that involves simply mixing a sample with a reagent, shortening testing time and simplifying processing. Using our compact measuring equipment, which includes anisotropic magneto resistance (AMR) sensors, we conducted high-sensitivity measurements of extremely small amounts of two biomarkers (C-reactive protein, CRP and α-Fetoprotein, AFP) used for diagnosing arteriosclerosis and malignant tumors. The results indicate that an extremely small amount of CRP and AFP could be detected within 15 min, which demonstrated the possibility of a simple and quick high-sensitivity immunoassay that involves using an AC-susceptibility measurement system.

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  • Yuanhe Xue, Wei Yan, Xuan Liu, Mengxia Zhou, Yang Zhao, Hao Ma
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ECP5030
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: November 10, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Model-based sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is promising for high-speed operation to estimate motor state, which is the speed and the position of the rotor, via electric signals of the stator, beside the inevitable fact that estimation accuracy is degraded by electromagnet interference (EMI) from switching devices of the converter. In this paper, the simulation system based on Luenberger observer and phase-locked loop (PLL) has been established, analyzing impacts of EMI on motor state estimations theoretically, exploring influences of EMI with different cutoff frequency, rated speeds, frequencies and amplitudes. The results show that Luenberger observer and PLL have strong immunity, which enable PMSM can still operate stably even under certain degrees of interference. EMI produces sideband harmonics that enlarge pulsation errors of speed and position estimations. Additionally, estimation errors are positively correlated with cutoff frequency of low-pass filter and the amplitude of EMI, and negatively correlated with rated speed of the motor and the frequency of EMI. When the frequency is too high, its effects on motor state estimations are negligible. This work contributes to the comprehensive understanding of how EMI affects motor state estimations, which further enhances practical application of sensorless PMSM.

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  • Duc Minh NGUYEN, Hiroshi SHIRAI, Se-Yun KIM
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ECP5027
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: November 08, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In this study, the edge diffraction of a TM-polarized electromagnetic plane wave by two-dimensional dielectric wedges has been analyzed. An asymptotic solution for the radiation field has been derived from equivalent electric and magnetic currents which can be determined by the geometrical optics (GO) rays. This method may be regarded as an extended version of physical optics (PO). The diffracted field has been represented in terms of cotangent functions whose singularity behaviors are closely related to GO shadow boundaries. Numerical calculations are performed to compare the results with those by other reference solutions, such as the hidden rays of diffraction (HRD) and a numerical finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. Comparisons of the diffraction effect among these results have been made to propose additional lateral waves in the denser media.

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  • Katsumi FUKUMOTO
    Article type: BRIEF PAPER
    Article ID: 2023ECS6009
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: October 26, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Previously a method was reported to determine the mathematical representation of the microwave oscillator admittance by using numerical calculation. When analyzing the load characteristics and synchronization phenomena by using this formula, the analysis results meet with the experimental results. This paper describes a method to determine the mathematical representation manually.

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  • Mohd Mawardi Saari, Mohd Herwan Sulaiman, Toshihiko Kiwa
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023SEP0002
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: October 25, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In this work, the core size estimation technique of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using the static magnetization curve obtained from a high-Tc SQUID magnetometer and a metaheuristic inversion technique based on the Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO) algorithm is presented. The high-Tc SQUID magnetometer is constructed from a high-Tc SQUID sensor coupled by a flux transformer to sense the modulated magnetization signal from a sample. The magnetization signal is modulated by the lateral vibration of the sample on top of a planar differential detection coil of the flux transformer. A pair of primary and excitation coils are utilized to apply an excitation field parallel to the sensitive axis of the detection coil. Using the high-Tc SQUID magnetometer, the magnetization curve of a commercial MNP sample (Resovist) was measured in a logarithmic scale of the excitation field. The PSO inverse technique is then applied to the magnetization curve to construct the magnetic moment distribution. A multimodal normalized log-normal distribution was used in the minimization of the objective function of the PSO inversion technique, and a modification of the PSO search region is proposed to improve the exploration and exploitation of the PSO particles. As a result, a good agreement on the Resovist magnetic core size was obtained between the proposed technique and the non-negative least square (NNLS) inversion technique. The estimated core sizes of 8.0484 nm and 20.3018 nm agreed well with the values reported in the literature using the commercial low-Tc SQUID magnetometer with the SVD and NNLS inversion techniques. Compared to the NNLS inversion technique, the PSO inversion technique had merits in exploring an optimal core size distribution freely without being regularized by a parameter and facilitating an easy peak position determination owing to the smoothness of the constructed distribution. The combination of the high-Tc SQUID magnetometer and the PSO-based reconstruction technique offers a powerful approach for characterizing the MNP core size distribution, and further improvements can be expected from the recent state-of-the-art optimization algorithm to optimize further the computation time and the best objective function value.

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