Jain Literature preserves major versions of the Rāma and Kṛṣṇa stories. Vimalasūri and other Jain authors wrote many Jain Rāma stories. The authors also referred to Kṛṣṇa stories in their works. But Kṛṣṇa was almost always one of the characters in Neminātha hagiographies.
Jain narratives brought in the Rāma and Kṛṣṇa stories as an essential part. There remains much work about the Jain Rāma story from the 5th century. Jain authors seem to have been keen to portray Rāma as Baladeva, who does not kill anybody and will reach enlightenment. Therefore, the role of killing Rāvaṇa shifted to Lakṣmaṇa in order that Rāma observe ahiṃsā. But other murders by Rāma were often overlooked by authors, although the ahiṃsā of Rāma was the most crucial element for the story.
Because of the inconsistency among Jain Rāma stories, this paper investigates the peculiarity of Rāma stories in Jain works, comparing them to the Kṛṣṇa story, which is very close to Neminātha.
Jain Carita Literature has a long tradition. The Jains had formalized their saints into Sixty-three Great Men. However, the authors of Carita works often created many biographies about saints other than the Sixty-three Great Men. This paper takes up three people, Neminātha, Bāhubalin, and Śālibhadra.
Neminātha, the 22nd Tīrthaṅkara is included in Sixth-three Great Men. But the Jain Old Gujarati works, succeeding a tradition of the Jain Caritas, emphasized the love of his fiance Rājul for Neminātha, rather than the biography of Neminātha.
Bāhubalin overwhelmed his brother, the first Cakravartin Bharata, in a battle, and underwent a conversion to Jain doctrine by his father, the first Tīrthaṅkara, Ṛṣabha. Bāhubalin is the most important character in that story.
Śālibhadra was a very wealthy merchant whose wealth outdid that of the king. But one day he realized that the king dominated him, and all people also had a master. Then Śālibhadra renounced the worldly life.
This paper proposes that the Jain authors gave these Extra-saints appropriate roles required according to the social or political situation.