This paper focuses on faculty training facilities at private elementary schools in Okayama Prefecture following the end of WWI, primarily between 1920 and 1922. It also contributes fresh perspective to the literature on the means by which elementary school teachers were trained, using a route other than that of normal schools in prewar Japan. The author has thus far researched the elementary school teacher training business in private elementary faculty training facilities in Okayama which began in the 1900s following the establishment of a compulsory four-year education system. As a continuation of that research, this paper focuses on the end of WWI, a period marked by the decline of elementary school teachers following the wartime climate. It focuses on the significance of and manner in which private elementary school training facilities emerged in the form of authorized secondary education test training facilities for faculty, thereby securing their continuation amidst the withdrawal and decline of private elementary faculty training facilities. This phenomenon suggests that a proper evaluation of primary education faculty training requires incorporating secondary education faculty training into the scope of research.
In the Interwar period, especially the 1920s-30s, the Japanese economy faced a long recession. As heavy industry began to develop again in the late 1930s, urban areas headed to recovery. On the other hand, rural society was strongly tied with light industry (especially silk spinning), and faced continued recession.
Worsening the situation, many natural disaster occurred in this period (Great Kanto Earthquake, huge frost damage in Central Japan area, Showa Sanriku Tsunami and so on). The Japanese economy and society were severely challenged. The Japanese central government even planned for emigration to Manchuria to reduce these domestic problems, a policy that would have disastrous consequences after the war.
However, not all villages relied on the Manchuria emigration policy for their community's survival. Many rural villages maintained social order without a decrease in population. A major factor in the survival of these communities appears to have been the existence of a local cooperative. This paper shows how local cooperatives mitigated the economic crisis using a case study: Kano Credit Union, in Nagano prefecture.
The economy of Kano village was severely damaged by declining silk prices, as well as natural disasters. Despite this, the cooperative maintained profitability. The Kano cooperative had been honored by the National cooperatives' central association in 1910 for its good management practices, so this cooperative provides an ideal model. I analyze the Kano cooperative's business during the interwar period, and show how local community cooperatives provide a source of stability during periods of economic crisis.