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全文: "端島" 長崎県
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  • 松田 浩
    コンクリート工学
    2012年 50 巻 3 号 3_T1-3_T2
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 宮地 英敏
    社会経済史学
    2010年 76 巻 2 号 203-224
    発行日: 2010/08/25
    公開日: 2017/07/18
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    本稿は,戦後の三菱端島の労働者を対象に,彼らの個票データを主たる史料として利用して,その出自・前歴・年齢などを分析することにより,炭鉱労働者の性格について考察した論文である。戦前以来の中四国から北部九州の炭鉱(特に坑内労働)へという労働移動は,戦後も引き続き数年間はみられたが,1950年代にはそれが南九州から北部九州へという労働移動に転じた。しかし石炭産業が構造不況業種となっていく中で,1950年代後半から末年にかけて農村からの労働力の吸引力は弱まり,中小炭鉱を含む他の炭鉱会社や関連業種などで働いた労働者たちの採用が増加していった。また,三菱端島での職種と前歴とのクロス分析では,農村出身者が低熟練の職種に就いたのに対して,他炭鉱などの経験者が相対的な熟練職種に就いていた。一方で工作見習や電工見習には,三菱端島労働者の子弟が大量に採用されるという傾向も抽出された。最後に,炭鉱労働者の「下降構造」というテーゼに対して,三菱端島のような大手炭鉱であっても,1960年代以降を中心に状況に応じて中小炭鉱経験者をも採用している点などを論じている。
  • RCCS実行委員会広報部会
    コンクリート工学
    2015年 53 巻 12 号 1080-1082
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 地学雑誌
    1891年 3 巻 11 号 605a
    発行日: 1891/11/25
    公開日: 2010/12/22
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 地学雑誌
    1891年 3 巻 11 号 605
    発行日: 1891/11/25
    公開日: 2010/12/22
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 武藤 浩二
    電子情報通信学会 基礎・境界ソサイエティ Fundamentals Review
    2016年 9 巻 3 号 266-267
    発行日: 2016/01/01
    公開日: 2016/01/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 崎原 康平, 山田 義智, 湯浅 昇, 濱崎 仁
    日本建築学会構造系論文集
    2016年 81 巻 727 号 1403-1412
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     It is very important to predict the airborne chloride ions to be transported from the sea in order to perform endurance design and maintenance. Furthermore, if it is possible to spatially visualize the distribution of the predicted airborne chloride ions, it is beneficial in helping to assess the chloride attack environment. In the above situation, we have proposed the airborne chloride ions estimation formula that taken into account the distance and altitude from the coast. In addition, the proposed formula takes into account the influence of the attenuation of airborne chloride ions. In the previous study (references 25) and 26)), the proposed formula has been approximated using a square law the relationship between the average wind speed and the generated airborne chloride ions. However, airborne chloride ions of Hashima Island in Nagasaki with special coastal terrain, there was a problem that it is difficult to capture the trend of the measured values in the proposed equation using the square-law.
     In this study, we have proposed the generation airborne chloride ions estimation equation using the exponential law. Also we estimated airborne chloride ions to be transported inland by using proposed equation, compared the estimated results with measured results and it was compared to previous studies. Furthermore, we attempt to construct a simple system that can visualize the spatial distribution of airborne chloride ions.
     First of all, in the study of the relationship between average wind speed and the generated airborne chloride ions, the approximation both the square-law and the exponential law were almost the same in Okinawa. On the other hand, in Hashima Island, the approximation compared exponential law with square law, it is possible to better the exponential law capture the trend of more measured results.
     Secondly, we have examined the attenuation coefficient used in equation (1). As the result, it was confirmed that attenuation coefficient considered the effect of shielding of building, the influence of the wind generated by the special terrain, effect of sedimentation rate of splash particles.
     In the study of airborne chloride ions to be transported to the inland, in Okinawa, the estimated value by the proposed formula and the BMS formula of the present study was to obtain a result in good agreement with the measured values. On the one hand, some of the observation points in Hashima Island, it was confirmed that the measured value and the estimated value does not match. However, the proposed equation in the study (Equation (1)) was able to capture the overall trend of the measured values.
     Finally, we visualized the airborne salt transport situation by using the estimated results of the proposed formula. In the created map of transportation airborne chloride ions, it is possible to take into account the distance from the coast, altitude, the building height. Also, it can be spatially visualized.
  • 佐藤 雅紀, 渕上 和輝, 七條 大樹, 中山 雄樹
    ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演概要集
    2018年 2018 巻 2P2-D08
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/25
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    In this research, we developed a prototype underwater vehicle used under a tidal current and evaluated its performance. The vehicle is remotely operated vehicle that has variable wings and has no thrust actuators. Like a kite, the vehicle controls its attitude by the tension of the tow cable and the lift force of wings. In the towing experiment, we achieved an attitude control using variable wings.

  • 地学雑誌
    1891年 3 巻 11 号 605b-606
    発行日: 1891/11/25
    公開日: 2010/12/22
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 金尾 政賢
    電氣學會雜誌
    1952年 72 巻 765 号 310-312
    発行日: 1952/06/01
    公開日: 2008/11/20
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 渡辺 明
    コンクリートジャーナル
    1974年 12 巻 10 号 57-60
    発行日: 1974/10/15
    公開日: 2013/04/26
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 三宅 宗悦
    人類學雜誌
    1932年 47 巻 7 号 257-258
    発行日: 1932/07/15
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 今野 啓一
    日本建築学会論文報告集
    1956年 54 巻 601-604
    発行日: 1956/10/05
    公開日: 2017/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 山本 栄一, 日隈 四郎, 家坂 貞男, 有松 憲生, 二司 哲夫
    鉱山地質
    1967年 17 巻 84 号 200-213
    発行日: 1967/08/20
    公開日: 2009/06/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Hashima coal mine of the Mitsubishi Mining Co. is located at the semi-artificial tiny Hashima Island, well known as "Warship Island", about 20 km to the south-west of the Nagasaki Harbour.
    The mine was put into operation in 1887 and has yielded highest class coking coal ever since. Nevertheless, the mining condition was becoming unfavorable in recent years and new coal fields have been actively searched in this area.
    Since 1953, many geologists and their assistants collected large number of rock samples from the sea-bottom by means of the specially designed dredger backet. They dived with aqualung to observe directly the outcrops at the sea bottom, and examined heavy mineral frequencies of the rock samples collected. Intensive geophysical prospecting, such as marine seismic prospecting by reflection method with floating cables and pressure sensitive geophones, and sonic prospecting was also introduced, in 1957.
    Thus, the detailed geological maps could be constructed, and the underground geological structure in this off-shore area was revealed. Several coal seams in the Mitsuse area could be traced at the sea bottom exactly, and the coal reserves were clarified.
    The Mitsuse area has been mined, since Oct. 1965, 14 months after the previous working area was closed owing to a mining accident. The Mitsuse area produces monthly more than 30, 000 tons of high class coking coal at present.
    In the Hashima area, there is a large reverse fault, named the Hashima-oki fault. Since the depth of the coal seams beyond this fault is rather shallow and there is a large quantity of coal reserves, this huge area is much promising as the next working area.
  • 地学雑誌
    1925年 37 巻 10 号 602-607
    発行日: 1925/10/15
    公開日: 2010/12/22
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 隈部 守
    人文地理
    1960年 12 巻 3 号 246-254
    発行日: 1960/06/30
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 西原 純
    人文地理
    1998年 50 巻 2 号 105-127
    発行日: 1998/04/28
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The restructuring of the Japanese economy in the 1980s caused serious economic depression in single enterprise communities based on industries such as mining, steel and shipbuilding, particularly in those communities located in the peripheral regions of Japan. Takashima is a small island (with an area of 1.2 square kilometers) located in one of Japan's peripheral regions, where a coal mine operated by Mitsubishi interests shut down in 1986 in response to Japan's economic restructuring. In this article, the author examines the collapse and subsequent reorganization of the single enterprise community on Takashima over the ten years since the closure of the mine.
    Takashima mine was the first coal mine in Japan to make use of European mining techniques and machinery. Full-scale development of the mine commenced in 1868, through a co-operative agreement between the Scottish merchant Thomas Glover and the local feudal landlord. Control over the mine eventually passed to Mitsubishi interests in 1881. Thanks to the success at Takashima, Mitsubishi then developed other mines elsewhere in Japan and extended its activities into other industrial sectors such as shipbuilding.
    In the 1960s, when the Takashima coal mine enjoyed its most productive period, 80 percent of all the workers on Takashima were employed by Mitsubishi's mining divisions and its affiliates. As a result, Takashima assumed the characteristics of a typical single enterprise community, with a three-tiered social structure based on the distinctions between “managerial staff and technicians”, “miners employed by Mitsubishi” and “miners employed by small subcontractors”.
    In those days, 75% of total revenues received by the municipality of Takashima were derived from Mitsubishi in the form of property taxes, mining taxes, corporation taxes, etc. Moreover, the mayor of Takashima was a former leader of Mitsubishi's labor union, and of the 24 members of Takashima's municipal assembly, 21 were either managerial staff from Mitsubishi or members of the company's labor union. As in other single enterprise communities, the power of Mitsubishi dominated all aspects of the community on Takashima.
    With the closure of the mine, the community lost 2, 000 jobs directly, and at a single stroke, in the coal mining sector. As a result, the population decreased from 5, 491 at the point when the mine closed to 2, 568 six months later, to 1, 554 two years after the closure, and eventually to 1, 063 10 years after the closure. Over the same period, the ratio of the population aged 65 or over increased from 9 percent at the time of the closure to 37 percent 10 years later. The severity of Takashima's depopulation, and the rate of aging of the population, were both unprecedented in Japan.
    After the closure of the mine, the municipality of Takashima failed to revitalize the local economy, despite generous assistance from the national and prefectural governments. Mitsubishi interests made little contribution to the recovery effort either, beyond a couple of joint investments with the municipal government in new small businesses. As a result, over the 10 year period following the closure of the mine, 115 new jobs were created by revitalization projects on the island, however, only 23 jobs are available in 1997. The reasons for this failure are as follows: 1) Takashima's poor locational conditions as an object for investment, 2) the hasty emigration of young and middle aged ex-miners with above average skills and educational backgrounds, 3) the recession associated with the restructuring of the Japanese economy, 4) the low wages paid by these new enterprises and by other businesses which were enticed onto the island, 5) the inability of ex-miners to adjust to the manufacturing sector, and 6) a lack of the entrepreneurship required among managers in other sectors other than coal mining to set up new businesses.
  • 西原 純, 齋藤 寛
    人文地理
    2002年 54 巻 2 号 109-130
    発行日: 2002/04/30
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    With the restructuring of the Japanese economy during the 1980s, many large enterprises were obliged to downsize or shut down mines and industrial plants. In this paper, we explore the closure of the Takashima coal mine in 1986 by its owner Mitsubishi, one of Japan's largest corporations, as a typical example of industrial decline in one of Japan's peripheral regions. This coal mine had been operating on the small island of Takashima for 118 years. In particular, the authors examine the difficulties experienced by redundant workers in different hierarchically-defined classes in reacting to the closure and the need to reorganize their lives.
    The results of the research are as follows:
    (1) During the mining era, there existed a three-tiered social structure, organized by Mitsubishi's mining company, consisting of three differentiated classes of workers: the managerial staff, Mitsubishi's own miners, and miners working for subcontractors. The workers in each class had quite different backgrounds, particularly with regard to educational attainment and occupational skill.
    (2) When the mine closed, the managerial staff were not retrenched, but instead were relocated from Takashima island to other establishments owned by Mitsubishi. All of the miners, however, whether employed by Mitsubishi or by subcontractors, lost their jobs, and had to seek new jobs and new lives outside of Takashima island.
    (3) In comparison with workers made redundant by other restructuring industries, such as steel and shipbuilding, Mitsubishi's former miners received a great deal of economic support from both the government and the company. Miners previously employed by subcontractors received little help, however, from their former employers.
    (4) Former miners, whether previously employed by Mitsubishi or by one of its subcontractors, experienced much greater difficulty in finding new jobs than workers made redundant by other industries. There were also big differences between former Mitsubishi miners and those previously employed by subcontractors in terms of the locations where new jobs were found, the size of their new employers and the salaries they received.
    (5) During the six months following the closure, out-migration was highly selective: those most likely to leave Takashima island were people of comparatively high social status, such as managerial staff, Mitsubishi's former miners, and younger heads of households. Since then, the municipality of Takashima has failed to revitalize its local economy and has suffered from severe depopulation and a rapid ageing of the community.
    (6) Miners made redundant by the closure of other Japanese coal mines in the 1980s experienced similar difficulties to those experienced by Takashima's miners in finding new jobs and rebuilding their lives, reflecting the common characteristics of miners everywhere.
  • 地質鉱床及探査専門委員会
    日本鉱業会誌
    1968年 84 巻 958 号 129-137
    発行日: 1968/02/25
    公開日: 2011/07/13
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 浅野 五郎, 田中 信也, 田中 博美, 久永 紀夫
    鉱山地質
    1965年 15 巻 72 号 109-119
    発行日: 1965/07/10
    公開日: 2009/06/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper are summarised the results of the chemical and physical studies of thermally metamor-phosed coals from the Takashima colliery. For the physical studies, X-ray diffraction. records by the proportional counter diffractometer have been used. The X-ray study had two objects. One was to determine ash minerals in the thermally metamorphosed coal, and the other was to standardize the X-ray diffraction patterns obtained from normal thermally unaffected coals as well as from semi-cokes and cokes. These have been described and discussed in detail. Optical methods have been also applied to this study under the reflecting microscope, and the texture and unisotropic opticall character of the thermally affected coals have been investigated, which revealed that the unisotropic mosaic structure becomes distinct from the stage of semi-coke. The refractive index of the coal of lover grade of carbonization becomes higher as the grade rises.
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