The purpose of this paper is to rearrange the discussions about what the significance of neuroscience, which is currently rapidly developing, for philosophy of religion has and then to prospect the possibility of neuroscience in relation to philosophy of religion. First of all, our discussion begins after confirming that philosophy of religion understood in this paper includes both philosophy of religious studies and philosophy of religion. The following development of neuroscience is interesting in terms of overcoming the conflict between science and religion. 1. Studies on individual brains remarkable in the neuroscience by the end of the 20th century have shown approaches to the conflict schema between science and religion in the setting of determinism versus free will. 2. On the other hand, social brain research since the beginning of the 21st century shows the possibility of development of a different argument from the conflict schema. This social brain research could be interpreted as responding to the development of the philosophical anthropology of the 20th century and furthermore it provides an opportunity to reconsider the human understanding of Christianity.