The folding “clamshell” mobile phone was chosen as the dominant industrial design in the Japanese mobile phone industry due to the importance of mail functionality, and NEC actively pushed this style and acquired major market share. As a result, at the start of the 21st century, the dominant design “Galapagos ke-tai,” unique to Japan, was established. However, this dominant industrial design along with the functionality of these phones became a barrier to the Japanese mobile phone industry when they shifted to smartphones. In other words, a dominant industrial design determined the competitive positions of companies.
This paper reports on a study that examined Japanese listeners’ difficulties in recognizing English function words in connected speech. Japanese first and second year university EFL students listened to short sentences of four to six words containing function words in connected speech and again in un-connected speech (citation form). Students transcribed the sentences and their errors were analyzed. Finding included, 1) students had considerably more difficulty transcribing connected speech than unconnected speech. 2) Function word pronouns beginning with the phoneme /h/ appear to be more difficult to perceive in connected speech. 3) Inadequate knowledge of how function words are modified in connected speech, little attention to sentence syntax, as well as a lack of phonological word knowledge are suggested as possible causes of difficulties in aural word recognition.
The fourth industrial revolution is referred to as Industry 4.0. The current trend with manufacturing is automation and unparalleled levels of data exchange. To bring this trend to realization requires integrating the Internet of Things, Internet of Everything cyber-physical systems, cloud computing technologies, and more into manufacturing. Industry 4.0 involves a hyperconnected system that includes the smarter use of robotics to effectively and efficiently move to manufacture to new heights. With the use of all these technological systems, it is imperative to ensure that cyber security plays a role during the rise of this digital industrial revolution. In the United Kingdom, more than eighty manufacturing plants were hit by cyber attacks while threats in this specific industry have risen. The pitfalls of having hyperconnected systems leave an entire industry even more vulnerable than the traditional enterprise system design.