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  • Masaki KOHANA, Shusuke OKAMOTO, Masaru KAMADA, Tatsuhiro YONEKURA
    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
    2010年 E93.D 巻 12 号 3173-3180
    発行日: 2010/12/01
    公開日: 2010/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    We have investigated the bottleneck in web-based
    MORPG
    system and proposed a load-distribution method using multiple web servers. This technique uses a dynamic data allocation method, called the moving home. This paper describes the evaluation of our method using 4, 8, 16 web servers. We evaluated it on both the single-server system and multi-server system. And we confirm that the effect of the moving home through the comparison between the multi-server system without the moving home and that with the moving home. Our experimental result shows that the upper bound of the number of avatars in the eight-server system with the moving home becomes 380 by contrast that in the single-server system is 200.
  • Shusuke OKAMOTO, Masaru KAMADA, Tatsuhiro YONEKURA
    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
    2008年 E91.D 巻 6 号 1700-1703
    発行日: 2008/06/01
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This letter proposes a prototyping tool for Web-based Multiuser Online Role-Playing Game (
    MORPG
    ). The design goal is to make this tool simple and powerful. The tool is comprised of a GUI editor, a translator and a runtime environment. The GUI editor is used to edit state-transition diagrams, each of which defines the behavior of the fictional characters. The state-transition diagrams are translated into C program codes, which plays the role of a game engine in RPG system. The runtime environment includes PHP, JavaScript with Ajax and HTML. So the prototype system can be played on the usual Web browser, such as Fire-fox, Safari and IE. On a click or key press by a player, the Web browser sends it to the Web server to reflect its consequence on the screens which other players are looking at. Prospected users of this tool include programming novices and schoolchildren. The knowledge or skill of any specific programming languages is not required to create state-transition diagrams. Its structure is not only suitable for the definition of a character behavior but also intuitive to help novices understand. Therefore, the users can easily create Web-based
    MORPG
    system with the tool.
  • Masaki KOHANA, Shusuke OKAMOTO, Atsuko IKEGAMI
    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
    2013年 E96.D 巻 12 号 2645-2653
    発行日: 2013/12/01
    公開日: 2013/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper describes a near-optimal allocation method for web-based multi-player online role-playing games (MORPGs), which must be able to cope with a large number of users and high frequency of user requests. Our previous work introduced a dynamic data reallocation method. It uses multiple web servers and divides the entire game world into small blocks. Each ownership of block is allocated to a web server. Additionally, the ownership is reallocated to the other web server according to the user's requests. Furthermore, this block allocation was formulated as a combinational optimization problem. And a simulation based experiment with an exact algorithm showed that our system could achieve 31% better than an ad-hoc approach. However, the exact algorithm takes too much time to solve a problem when the problem size is large. This paper proposes a meta-heuristic approach based on a tabu search to solve a problem quickly. A simulation result shows that our tabu search algorithm can generate solutions, whose average correctness is only 1% different from that of the exact algorithm. In addition, the average calculation time for 50 users on a system with five web servers is about 25.67 msec while the exact algorithm takes about 162 msec. An evaluation for a web-based
    MORPG
    system with our tabu search shows that it could achieve 420 users capacity while 320 for our previous system.
  • Te-Yuan HUANG, Kuan-Ta CHEN, Polly HUANG, Chin-Laung LEI
    IEICE Transactions on Communications
    2008年 E91.B 巻 5 号 1260-1268
    発行日: 2008/05/01
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Quantifying user satisfaction is essential, because the results can help service providers deliver better services. In this work, we propose a generalizable methodology, based on survival analysis, to quantify user satisfaction in terms of session times, i. e., the length of time users stay with an application. Unlike subjective human surveys, our methodology is based solely on passive measurement, which is more cost-efficient and better able to capture subconscious reactions. Furthermore, by using session times, rather than a specific performance indicator, such as the level of distortion of voice signals, the effects of other factors like loudness and sidetone, can also be captured by the developed models. Like survival analysis, our methodology is characterized by low complexity and a simple model-developing process. The feasibility of our methodology is demonstrated through case studies of ShenZhou Online, a commercial MMORPG in Taiwan, and the most prevalent VoIP application in the world, namely Skype. Through the model development process, we can also identify the most significant performance factors and their impacts on user satisfaction and discuss how they can be exploited to improve user experience and optimize resource allocation.
  • 中村 彰宏
    情報通信学会誌
    2019年 37 巻 1 号 25-36
    発行日: 2019年
    公開日: 2019/07/22
    ジャーナル フリー

    本論文では、2018年4月に筆者が実施したWEBアンケート調査データを用いて、スマートフォンゲームにおけるオンラインマルチプレイが課金行動に与える影響を分析した。オンラインマルチプレイの相手として、リアル(現実世界)でも知っているプレイヤーと、リアルでは知らないプレイヤーとに分け、それぞれのマルチプレイ有無と課金有無の関係を実証的に考察した。分析の結果、リアルでは知らないプレイヤーとマルチプレイをするプレイヤーの方が、課金をしやすく、リアルで知っているプレイヤーとマルチプレイするプレイヤーの方が、課金しにくいことなどが明らかとなった。また、空き時間が少ないプレイヤーの方が課金をしやすい傾向なども示され、スマートフォンゲームのアイテム課金の目的の一つとして時短効果があることはしばしば言われるが、その点が実証的にも確かめられた。当該分析結果はタイプ別のマルチプレイを促進することでゲーム会社の収益が改善する可能性を示唆している。

  • 元島 博信
    九州歯科学会雑誌
    1982年 36 巻 1 号 26-39
    発行日: 1982/02/25
    公開日: 2017/12/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    The circumvallate papillae and foliate papillae of the pigs tongue were studied with an optical and an electron microscope. The materials was obtained from 15 individuals (original country ; Hampshire and Landrace) ages 6-7 months. Main results obtained were as follows. 1. The circumvallate papillae, showing ellipse in shape, were found in a pair symmetrically located near the indistinct border between the tongue root and body. The secondary papillae, which were well developed were observed over 10 in number on their dorsal surface. There were the mucous glands, opening to their dorsal epithelium surface, and solitary lymphonodules in the lamina propria mucosae. 2. The foliate papillae, showing oval bulges on the mucous membrane, were found in a pair symmetrically located on the tongue margin opposed to the circumvallate papillae. They consisted of parallel ridges with 3-6 grooves. There were the mixed glands, opening to the bottom of the furrows, and solitary lymphonodules in the lamina propria mucosae. 3. Occassionally, a cell-like structure which filled the taste canal was found in the buds. Its appearance was suggestive of either wandering of a leucocyte or discharge of a cell of the buds. 4. There occassionally occurred buds with two pores among the large-sized ones. 5. Three cell types, I, II and III, except undifferentiated cells in the basal portion were clearly discriminated in the buds, as in other mammalia. 6. There were sometimes recognized the dark cored nuclear bodies in the nucleus of the type II cell, and isolate cilium in the lateral surface of the type III cell. 7. Some of the taste hairs, microvilli, appeared to be had club-like with bulged tip.
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