Kaetsu region is the northern part of Niigata prefecture. Major towns in this area are three castle towns(johka-machi); Murakami, Shibata, Muramatsu, and four port towns(minato-machi); Senami, Iwafune, Nuttari, Niigata. Additionally, there are many small towns in countryside(zaigoh-cho) along major roads and rivers. Many historical buildings remain in these towns.
One type of historical building is Machiya, which is traditional merchants' commercial and residential building. External form of Machiya is classified into two types; Tateya whose ridge of the roof is vertical to the attached street and Yokoya whose ridge is horizontal. Besides, there is Machiya that is mixture of Tateya and Yokoya in Kaetsu area. The front part of this Machiya is Yokoya, and the back part, which is predominant, is Tateya.
The pupose of this paper is to clarify the number and the percentage of remaining Yokoya-Tateya mixed Machiya in Kaetsu area, and to understand design character of this building. Major results are as fillows:
1) No Yokoya-Tateya mixed Machiya exist in nothern and southern Kaetsu region. On the other hand, there are many Yokoya-Tateya mixed Machiya in Naka-kanbara district and western Kita-kanbara district. It may be inferred that Yokoya-Tateya mixed Machiya was formed from Tateya. One of the reasons is becouse no Yokoya-Tateya mixed Machiya can be found in towns which are consisted purely of Yokoya.
2) Several types of facade design are extracted from 740 Yokoya-Tateya mixed Machiya.
3) As seen in old paintings and photographs, most Machiya in Niigata were Tateya in the late Edo and early Meiji period. The townscape changed in the mid meiji period, and many Yokoya-tateya mixed Machiya emerged. This might be a result of building guidelines proclaimed after the two great fires.