This research presents an idea to focus on diversity of behaviors of children in after school childcare to evaluate present space composition of facilities and to develop planning policy. Diversity of behaviors means not only individual patterns of variety of acts but relationships with others. Survey was conducted in a after school childcare facility with one room converted from an elementary school classroom, which is surrounded by a school yard available for playing outside. The room is zoned with low furniture into a main zone and smaller corners. Observation research was held in Nov. and Dec. 2011. Acts of children inside in 95 scenes were recorded distinguishing individuals with intervals of 10 minutes. Difference of tendency of acts for areas in a room was found by analysis of kinds, locations and groups of children's acts. Main central zone is mainly for group behaviors and necessary behaviors. Surrounding small corners are mainly for spontaneous behaviors. Acts in groups are mainly done in main central zone and solitary acts or acts with small groups are mainly done in corners. Tendency of acts varies by corners. One corner is used often for active play and the other for group talk. Three characteristic patterns of behaviors were found through individuals' activity analysis. Pattern A is a group of children who tend to act sitting by oneself, pattern B: tend to act sitting in a group and pattern C: tend to act moving. Solo acts of pattern A were found in various location pattern such as one who acts solely beside groups of children, ones who locate in an area next to main area used by groups and one who find small corner to spend time alone. Diversity of sense of personal distance making could be found. Group acts of pattern B were mainly done in main area with low tables. One corner is also used for plays in groups. Moving acts of pattern C include active moving indoor plays and moving acts to find something for next acts. This pattern is considered to appear by relatively faster changes of acts. Locations of acts are dispersed in all the areas including gaps between areas. Children other than these three patterns are understood to be acting with patterns of combination with these patterns. "Idle appearing acts" consists about 10% of all acts, in which the observer could not easily understand their intention and purpose of the acts. "Absent stay", "absently staring" and "roaming" were observed. They are considered to mean resting or adjustment acts to find next acts or next company. They are also a part of diversity of behaviors. Ways to grasp the diversity of behavior of children in after school childcare could be shown through a case study. Relationship between diversity of behavior and space composition in a particular facility was found. Evaluation theory of diversity and planning principle will be developed through continuing comparative study in facilities in various situations.
A pedestrian simulation is one of effective means to verify the size of space and share the information of a crowd safety measure in an urban area that a large number of unspecified people visit. This study aims to reproduce pedestrian movements in high density queues and to clarify a mechanism of lane formation in contra-flow by using a multi-agent system. The crowd flow is based on the social force model, which is said that crowd dynamics at a state of emergency can be reproduced. To apply this model to pedestrian movements in a high density queue at ordinary times, we add new functions, which are ellipse-based collision detection and following behavior after an agent ahead. The following behavior includes the parameters to control propagation speed of stop-and-go waves in a queue. To confirm the reproducibility, we compare observation data of pedestrian movements in queues at urban facilities. In addition, we simulate a contra-flow and the lane formation phenomena to analyze the influence of the following behavior on crowd dynamics. The results are as follows. If the shape of an agent is a circle of the radius 30 cm, the collision between agents is detected at the line density of 1.67 people per meter. On the other hand, the system represents a pedestrian movement having the line density of 2.1 people per meter by making the shape of an agent an ellipse 30 cm in the major axis and 15 cm in the minor axis. In addition, by dynamic control of the parameter values (a, b) involving the fundamental diagram for pedestrians, and the parameter values (Ci, Di) involving line density during standing and walking, it is possible to reproduce the characteristic values of observation data, which are line density, propagation speed of stop-and-go waves. If the static parameter values are set, it is hard to agree with propagation speed of several stop-and-go waves accurately. However, it is useful to predict the characteristics of pedestrian movements in a queue. As a result of an application to contra-flows by using the multi-agent system, the lanes are formed regardless of the following behavior when the crowd density is low. On the other hand, the following behavior facilitates lane formation in the contra-flow with a density of over 1.0 people per square meter. It is an important point to enhance crowd safety. From the above results, we developed the general-purpose multi-agent system which enables to reproduce pedestrian movements in a queue and lane formation of contra-flow by extending an existing crowd dynamics model at a state of emergency.
The aim of the study is to clarify the effect of layout and communication on personal creativity and psychological evaluation in study work space. Creativity means to create some product but not to do businesslike work. In last experiment an experiment was produced about businesslike work.
Simulated experiments are produced in a simulated study space with 8 kinds of layout by 8 subjects for one group, who are asked to make wood block. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of the layout and communication on creativity and psychological evaluation. 8 kinds of layout are often seen in study work space, which include wall-type, island-type, the same direction type and so on. 8 kinds of layout contain 7 kinds of layout in last experiment and slanting island-type. The room for experiment is 7.87 meters long, 3.6 meters wide, and 3.15 meters high, where 8 desks are arranged. During the experiment, subjects are asked to make wood block work for 5 minutes by a decided theme, and to reply questionnaire regarding to psychological evaluation after they finished the wood block work, and asked to make the score of the wood block work by themselves, taking 100 points as perfection. Then they are asked to move to another kind of layout and repeat the work again. 6 groups include 48 subjects. 3 groups are permitted talking with each other, while the other 3 groups are not permitted talking during experiments. Subjects are aged from 19 years to 24 years old, who are undergraduate students or graduate students.
Analysis contains self-evaluation of work of wood block and psychological evaluation. Regarding to self-evaluation of work of wood block, modified score is defined as that score divide the average of all score of the same subject. For results, the follows are found. 1. In the case of difficult theme without talking, the self-evaluation of product in meeting-type is found well. 2. In the case of ease theme with talking, the self-evaluation of product in layout without intersection of sight is found well. 3. In the case of talking, wall-tape with edge is best for creativity, while in the case of no talking, island-type with edge is best for creativity. 4. It is difficult to say talking always help creativity. 5. In slanting meeting type, self-evaluation of work is high, because the intersection of sight helps people to communicate. In fact, it is found that intersection of sights prevent businesslike work in last experiment. 6. It can be say that intersection of eyes is a kind of communication. Regarding to the psychological evaluation, the follows are found. 1. Psychological evaluation is divided to spatial evaluation and emotional evaluation. 2. Psychological evaluation without talking is better than that with talking. 3. In the case of talking, both spatial evaluation and emotional evaluation in island-type with edge is the highest. In the wall-type, both spatial evaluation and emotional evaluation in island-type with edge is the lowest. In the case of no talking, spatial evaluation in island-type is the highest. Emotional evaluation of 8 kinds of layout is similar.
The issue in future is to study group creativity and contact the difference of creativity in different facilities.
The Housing Loan Corporation founded in 1950 was the most powerful supplier of public houses in Japan, which financed the enormous amounts of the Government Housing Loan for Japanese people during the latter half of the 20th century. For instance, approximately sixteen million housing units financed by the Housing Loan Corporation were built from 1966 to 2000, and accounted for about seventy percent of public houses. This research aims to clarify how the Housing Loan Corporation had improved the quality of Japanese houses. To verify the promotion of prefabricated houses by the Government Housing Loan, this paper carries out two approaches: one is to compile the statistic of it and the other is to make a historical review based on the examination of the Housing Loan Corporation's business plans during fifty years. And the followings are clarified. The course of the Housing Loan Corporation's history was to make a variety of loans to the dwelling units for sale. When the Government Housing Loan started in the early 1950s, the customized houses accounted for above ninety percent of the owner occupied dwellings and most of it was loaned to them. But the loans to the dwelling units for sale occupied almost fifty percent of it in the late 1990s. Because the more they were built in Japan, the more the Housing Loan Corporation loaned to them. This suggests that the system of the Government Housing Loan accommodated itself to structural changes of housing market in Japan. The Government Housing Loan to wooden prefabricated houses and steel made a substantial contribution to Japanese houses. The former, based on Agrément on Factory-made Houses since 1966, made an origin of seismic and fire preventive performance with current wooden houses of Japan. The reason is that it grew a structural planning method based on the bearing wall line and a specification of quasi fire resistive construction with wooden materials, which are generally used in designing conventional houses today. In contrast, the latter, started in 1962 as part of noncombustible building policy, seems not to bring anything of technical development. But the Government Housing Loan gave the steel prefabricated houses a quality assurance on new building system, and became the start of spreading tie-up loans in detached houses of Japan. Nowadays steel construction houses occupy approximately twenty percent of Japanese housing market and distinguish it from other countries'. In Europe and America, the purchasers of steel prefabricated houses weren't loaned generally by any financial institutions. This is pointed out to be one of reasons why they didn't take roots there. Therefore, the Government Housing Loan to steel prefabricated houses can be said to become the start of making an identity of Japanese housing market.
Introduction: Each region has its own way of achieving comfortable environment. Japanese traditional houses have been designed to be open and passive for the summer. Seaside villas are characterized as dwellings in nature with magnificent views and fresh wind. In such villas, you can see various combinations of window constitution: a window facing the sea with the role of taking both views and wind, and windows with different roles like a seaward window for taking views and a landward window for taking wind. Focusing on the constitution and placement of such windows would clarify the balance of different patency by views and cross ventilation. This study aims to clarify how to utilize seaward views and cross ventilation in contemporary Japanese seaside villas, focusing on morphological characteristic of the windows.
Methods: First, views were examined. Views being classified by the placement of glazing in a room facing the sea, the area of the glazing facing the sea as well as the rate of patency was examined. Then, for furnished rooms, the number and kinds of the furniture, the distance to the seaside front of the villa, and views seen from the place where the occupants gather, were examined. Based on these results, the characteristics of view patterns by the placement of glazing were discussed. Second, cross ventilation was examined. The positional relation among the windows taking wind and the relation between the windows and sea breeze were examined. To catch cross ventilation path regarding the place, the rate of the area with cross ventilation as well as the inclusion relation of the place where the residents gather, was discussed. Furthermore, the characteristics of cross ventilation were discussed. Third, based on all these results, we discussed the patency by the combination of view patterns and cross ventilation patterns and sorted the patency patterns by the index of the directivity to the sea.
Results: 1) For rooms facing the sea, view patterns were classified into three. Through the investigation of the patency of glazing of the seaward side, we have demonstrated the characteristics of view patterns: Fixed windows and windows that are capable of opening and closing on the seaward side were main streams. Catching the relationship between places in which people gather in a villa and other architectural elements, we discussed the characteristics of view patterns. 2) By the combination of places taking wind, cross ventilation was examined morphologically. Cross ventilation was classified into four by its path. We have demonstrated that the path following the sea breeze was often found. Furthermore, through the investigation area occupying the room as well as the inclusion characteristics of peoples gathering places, the characteristics of cross ventilation patterns were discussed. 3) Forming a matrix that sets view patterns in a vertical line and cross ventilation in a horizontal line, we obtained twelve patterns of patency. Arranging the patency patterns from the directivity, we clarified the followings: the basic pattern is cross ventilation following sea breeze: when views are limited to the seaward side, windows on the seaward side are for taking both views and wind: when windows play the role of more expansive views, the views of windows on the seaward side tend to have priority over wind.
Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated twelve patency patterns of the utilization of seaward views and cross ventilation in contemporary Japanese seaside villas. Furthermore, we clarified the characteristics of the window compositions by arranging the patterns from the directivity to the sea.
This study focuses on continuous thoughts of architectural expression in designing several architectures. These thoughts are one of the important methodology for executing works continuously. There are some theories in which architects and architectural critics referred to the importance of these thoughts. For examples, Shozo Baba, who is one of the authoritative editor in architectural journalism, insists that continuous thoughts of architectural expression is essential for architects to leave a mark on society through the long-term creative activity. From these points, this report aims to illustrate continuous thoughts of architectural expression by contemporary Japanese architects. In order to clarify it, design theories on a series of works by one architect on the same design theme are focused. Firstly the contents of each design theory were analyzed, and several descriptions of the design theme common to a series of works were extracted (Fig. 1). The meanings of these descriptions were classified into five categories, which were “theme on form”, “theme on space”, “theme on composition”, “theme on construction-technology”, and “theme on surrounding environment” (Table 1). Then most of the design theories contained “theme on form”, “theme on space”, “theme on composition”, and “theme on construction-technology”. On the other hand few design theories contained in “theme on surrounding environment”. Secondly continuous thoughts of architectural expression were analyzed from a viewpoint of two aspects ; one is the relationship among each work’s architectural expression, the other is the way of setting the prototype model of the architectural expression in the process of executing works. The former aspect was classified into three categories, which were “similar”, “different”, and “mixed” (Fig. 2, 3). The later aspect was classified into two categories, which were “deductive way” and “inductive way” (Fig. 4). Then, through analyzing the relationship with both two aspects, following characteristic combinations of both two aspects were found ; firstly “deductive way” and “different”, secondly “inductive way” and “similar”, lastly “inductive way” and “different” (Fig. 5). Consequently, the relationship between the meanings of design theme and the contents of above two aspects was considered and analyzed totally (Fig. 6). As a result, in each design theme, there are several tendencies on above two aspects were founded. Firstly in “theme on form”, “different” was found largely, regardless of the way of setting the prototype model. Secondly in “theme on space”, four combinations were found ; “deductive way” and “similar”, “deductive way” and “different”, “inductive way” and “similar”, “inductive way” and “mixed”. Thirdly in “theme on composition”, a characteristic combination was found ; “deductive way” and “different”. Lastly in “theme on construction-technology”, two characteristic combinations were found ; “inductive way” and “similar”, “inductive way” and “different”.
This paper constitutes the second part of an on-going research on street markets in Greater London. While the first part is literature-based and focuses on the management and effects of markets, this paper comprises an extensive fieldwork of the spatial configuration of all active street markets run by local councils in Inner London. The survey has been conducted at the scales of the stall, the street, and the overall market. At the street scale we classify the configuration of markets into 10 types according to three criteria: number of traffic lanes, the application or not of road closure to traffic, and the number of the stall rows. Finally we discuss several noteworthy aspects in relation with the street markets in Japan, such as the flexibility of the setting, the narrowness of the market passages, the pedestrianization or the role of markets as a reinforcement of existing retail areas.
Text description of architecture behaving by itself is one of the major forms of communication for architect to express their intention. It could express conceptual and abstract phenomenon like the role of architecture, the design method and the reaction towards the surrounding. Text description can add behavior towards architecture, acting like a creature with feelings that cannot be described through practical object. The objective of this paper is to reveal the relationship between architecture and the conceptual phenomenon by typifying the aspect of architecture from the view of active expression through the text description. The flow of this research is as below: 1. Extract the sentence which contains active expression as if a living thing used by architect to explain their architectural concept. 2. Extract Subject, Behavior and Target. Subject is an architectural object behaving by itself. Behavior is a verb which expresses the influence to others with object as a transitive verb, or expresses the motion of Subject itself as an intransitive verb. Target is the most relevant modifier of Behavior. 3. Consider the relationship between subject and behavior, behavior and target. After that, derive the tendency of their properties. 4. Create a matrix in which the cross axle is the tendency of subject and behavior, the vertical axis is behavior and subject, and derive the aspect type of architecture from the view of active expression. As a result, between subject and behavior, 4 types of the tendencies were found. : Involving form which tries to have a relationship with others, growing space which keeps to move by itself, reflecting form which reacts to the surrounding change by changing its property, symbolizing form. And between behavior and target, 4 type of tendencies were found. : Creation of direction by creating concrete origin, materialization of space by components of the space move to compose their space, Application of surrounding by taking the surrounding property and adding new property to others, effect to emotion by giving their conceptual image to people. Through the investigation of the tendency matrix, 17 types of the frameworks were derived. Within these types, five major aspects were found as below. 1. The behavior of the architecture property which is changeable to surrounding by subject itself moving. 2. The functional component which creates specific property by behaving as an alien element in the component which composes the architectural space. 3. The constitutive component which expresses design methods by behaving as the element creating architectural space. 4. The space which takes in the surrounding to add the alien property. As the expression, how it moves is the original property of architecture. This is because the active expression in the text is non-existent within architect's community. Therefore, these types of the frameworks are revealed as intrinsic properties of architecture when architect express their own design.
Windbreaks are important traditional methods for the adaptation and the passive environmental control against climate changes in rural settlements. However, changes in houses and lifestyle are among the main causes of their decreasing in the last years. Therefore, in order to reveal the actual trend of their decreasing and the reasons of their succession, this study adopts three research stages: 1) The quantity of windbreaks; 2) The arrangement of windbreaks; and 3) The spatial changes and the hearing survey in typical settlements. The approach of this study selected Kitaaizu village due to its particular location on a composite fan with Forty-nine (49) agricultural settlements surrounded by windbreaks.
1. The first stage is focused on the windbreaks quantity in order to clarify their decreasing use by comparing thirty-seven (37) settlements from aerial photographs of 1976 and 2011. Findings unveil changes of the average area ratio of windbreaks between 1976 with 19.9% and 2011 with 12.8%, with a decreasing ratio of 33.4%. The main characteristic of this trend shows many settlements' ratio in 1976 is above 20% decreasing under the average in 2011, conversely to a reduced number of settlements from 1976 with a decreasing ratio trend. Thus, the research focuses on the relationship between the location and the ratio of settlements leading to two main results. The first shows a low decreasing ratio in settlements with flood records, whereas the second indicates a high ratio of windbreaks located in traditional settlements near the old roads in 1976.
2. The second stage is focused on classifying the form of the settlements and the arrangement of the windbreaks. The first point to consider for the classification is the two temporary types of distribution patterns recognized by the analysis of the aerial photograph from 1976. It is noticeable that one of the patterns is located outside of the composite settlements whereas the other is found dispersed inside of them. The aerial photographs also show a major number of windbreaks located on the outside patterns rather than the dispersed patterns. The second point to reveals the different decreasing trends of the distribution patterns by comparing the aerial photographs of 1976 and 2011. According to the comparison, the scenario from 1976 shows a higher decreasing trend of the outside patterns and evidences a clear decrease in the settlements with east-west and north-south distribution. In contrast, it is observable a lower decrease trend of the dispersed patterns within composite settlements.
3. The third stage involves the analysis of spatial changes and the hearing survey conducted after the field measurements of the studied settlements, which considers features and reasons of decreasing trends of the outside and the dispersed patterns. The objective is to evaluate the decreasing trend and decreasing ratio of the outside patterns from the windbreaks located on the north and west sides of the studied settlements. Additionally, the condition of the dispersed patterns is regarded from the settlements formed by the household's windbreaks on north and west sides. Hence, it is observable that not only windbreaks located in traditional housing lots tend to be succeeded but also the arrangement of the settlements which contributes to this process. As a result, the importance for the conservation of windbreaks is discussed from the standpoint of their relationship with the surroundings.
This paper reveals the actual state of the decreasing trend of windbreaks and the reasons of their succession. Also, it shows the subjects to be succeeded by the windbreaks. The main conclusion of this study is to present the importance of windbreaks from the standpoint of the settlements' scale.
On the population reducing situations in Japanese local cities, planning Integrated Compact Cities are required on its future visions. Authors focus on Yubari City that have lost out financially has been planned to Integrated Compact City with shrinking urban area depend on the fiscal restraint. Considering not only the financial reconstructions but also improving living environment of residents should be required on the planning of Integrated Compact City. The planning team (City of Yubari, Hokkaido University and Northern Regional Building Research Institute) enforced the urban shrinking project of Mayachi public housing estate district one of the districts in Yubari City with that policy. The shrinking project was carried out with Communicative Planning between Yubari City and the residents for their relocation on the shrinking district. Authors developed Communicative Planning on this Mayachi housing shrinking project with five mutual steps. On the First step, the planning team figured out the 7 basically points for the project, integrations housing estates, rehabilitation of housing units and so on. In the next step, the team provided to the tenants those points and took their intention. After that, Yubari City made the draft plan of the shrinking project with reflection of the tenant's intents. In this third step, the basically points were increased to 11 points with the reflection. In the fourth step, the planning team asked the draft plan to all of the tenants by the questionnaire. Over half of the tenants who were planned to relocate inside the Mayachi housing estate indicated their intention approval or conditional approval to the draft plan of the shrinking project. Finally in the fifth step, Mayer of Yubari City decided the shrinking project of Mayachi public housing estate with 16 points of planning. This communicative planning between Yubari City and the tenants was very important on the shrinking project. The shrinking project should be proceeded with both advantage of municipality and residents, because it is required residents agreements on the shrinking projects. At the result, author provided the eight important points on the Communicative Planning on the shrinking district as follows. 1) The planning of shrinking district should be made for effects of financial rehabilitation. 2) On the process of the district shrinking planning, important points from both the financial rehabilitation of the municipality and the improvements of the residents living environment should be reflected. 3) The intention of residents for the shrinking planning are better taken in the residents work shop. 4) The details of intention of all of residents may be grasped by questionnaire for the project. 5) The intention of no-relocation residents also important on the shrinking project. Their agreements for the district shrinking project have some influences for approval of the project. 6) The renovation of common facilities of the district is very important for the shrinking project, because it has possibilities improving most of residents living environments. 7) At the results of the reflecting resident's intention to the district shrinking project, resident's evaluations may be good after the project. 8) On the district shrinking projects, considering to improving residents living environments and common facilities are the most important planning points.
This study aims to explore the possibility of revitalizing community development through artistic activities starting with reutilization of an industrial heritage. In this research, we focus on the Kitakagaya Creative Village (KCV) project in Osaka city. KCV project is a rare case of the community development to turn from a declined industrial area into a creative and attractive place as an independent and sustainable business. We examined the approach and perception of the stakeholders in KCV project with the literature-review, interviews and the questionnaire survey.
The major findings of this study are as follows. In order to develop KCV project as a community development, it is important for the operating-body to register the former shipyard as an industrial heritage and then organize the local revitalization committee, to attract the creators into the projects, to grant the creators' cultural and artistic activities, to run public relations campaigns of KCV project, and to exert the leadership and the business judgment. In addition, besides the operating-body, a human network of creators' hubs is useful to form the creative village. To continue the business independently from public fiscal resources, it is important to consider it as the real estate business of the operating-body. In KCV project, all creators' hubs have contracted a lease with the operating-body. However, since it offered a low-priced rent, permission of self-repair and the exemption from obligation of current restoration, young creators have the advantage to participate. These seem to be clues to reutilize vacant houses and derelict factories through artistic activities. As an evaluation of the creators of the KCV project, they are satisfied with a reasonable rent and self-repair. As an evaluation of visitors and residents, creators' activities in Kitakagaya received positive reviews and responses, because it leads to the revitalization and the rejuvenation of the town. It suggests that the reutilization of the former shipyard have created a new value with the historical background and KCV project have the possibility as a revitalization of community development. However, KCV project is faced with tasks, such as a consensus amongst various creators and an institutional constraint for artistic activities. The exterior change in the renovation of the buildings is not predominant in KCV project. Because of this, it is suggested that there is little influence on the region, however visitors are unable to realize that community development has been executed. Regarding the evaluation of industrial heritage, the perception of the visitors and local residents aged below 30s and above 40s is different. The younger generation evaluated it higher. These should be considered in order to reutilize an industrial heritage and derelict factories for the community development in the future.
This study aims to clarify the situation of the land use management and the landownership change in the village located in special zone of National Park through the case study of Daisen-ji village and Mitakesan-Sanjyo village. We clarify the following as the results. (1) Land use change in both villages The land use of both villages has changed by the process of maintaining it as a service center in national park. On the other hand, there were a lot of land classification changes from the land of temple and shrine precincts to the housing lot in Daisen-ji village at the time of setting the facility complexes. At Daisen-ji village, accommodations, the loan skiing shop, and the souvenir shop were constructed at the same time as the infrastructure improvement and various land uses exist together now. In Mitakesan village, there has been little change in the land classification and the improvement of road occurred mainly. (2) Land ownership change and intentions of landowner in both villages On the other hand, at Daisen-ji village, the new entry of the companies and the landowners outside the village had increased especially after setting the facility complexes. And, the owners in the inside and outside of the village are existing together now. Moreover, there is no successor in about 47 percent of households that manage lodgings. It is feared that such a situation causes the future low or unused lands and buildings. As for the land ownership of Mitakesan villlage, the majority of areas are privately owned land in the village, company-owned land, and the corporate estate by residents. Because it has been controlled excluding the land sale and the loan between the people related to the temple and shrine, the change in the land ownership was limited to extent in which the privately owned area was changed to the publicly-owned land for necessary minimum infrastructure improvement. Moreover, the almost 90 percent of the households have the successor and we can expect that the ownership and management by the resident in the village will continue in the future. So, it is thought that the difference arise in the change of the land use between Daise-ji village that new owners mainly consisted of company entered and Mitakesan village where land ownership before designation of national park was defended. (3) The situation and issue on the management of lands and buildings at both villages For Daisen-ji village, a lot of landowners in and outside the village manage individually. Especially, the privately owned area has a lot of problems such as increase of the unused land with incomplete management. And because the facility complexes system doesn't have a function to control the land use in the entire district, the development by each landowner has advanced individually. For Mitakesan village, the resident and the community composed of the resident owns not only the building lot but also the forest and uncultivated field and manages there with cooperation and adjustment. As a result, the land use doesn't change rapidly, and the land use management of the entire village space is enabled.
Hong Kong has been rapidly developed as a trading city since become a British colony. Currently, north coast of Hong Kong Island is a high-rise and high-density city around the Chung Wan area. In Hong Kong Island, steep mountain is adjacent to the city. In Central & Western District of Hong Kong Island, pedestrian paths play an important role to make space patterns based on the steep slope of hillside. There are many buildings not facing driveway in urban blocks with pedestrian paths, and that afford various commercial activities. In this study, it is assumed that these pedestrian paths are important elements that characterize the urban blocks. Therefore, the purposes of this study are following 3 things. (1) Pedestrian paths were classified according to their morphological characteristics. (2) Urban blocks were classified according to patterns of pedestrian paths. (3) Classified urban blocks were compared by contained building's entrance and type of land use. The following 4 things become clear. (1) As Characteristics of 63pedestrian paths, approximately half of pedestrian paths have a wide width over 4.5m. There are stairs to the many pedestrian paths and have a variety of cross sections. There is a difference in the shapes of the pedestrian paths among the area. There are many dead-end streets, within the neat-shaped urban blocks in Sai Wan area. In Sheung Wan areas near the mountains, there are a lot of streets connecting the pedestrian paths, thereby producing more complicated pedestrian spaces. (2) 35 urban blocks were classified into type of penetration, type of dead-end path, type of concomitance, according to patterns of pedestrian path. By the classification, the ground levels of buildings in the inner sides of the city blocks are differently used. It was clear that, the most number of the entrances were in type of concomitance. The most number of the entrances of shop were in type of penetration and type of concomitance, the most of the entrances of houses were in type of penetration and type of dead-end path. (3) 18 urban blocks have buildings not facing driveways located inside the urban blocks, type of concomitance most have it. There is a tendency that more entrances of shops and residences in such city blocks having a building not facing driveway, compared with urban blocks not having such a building. It can be said that a building not facing a driveway plays such a role in the city block space configuration that the building allows various retailing shops and residences to be on the ground level in the inner sides of the urban blocks. (4) By connected pedestrian paths of different urban blocks, were produced extensive pedestrian networks in the city. The pedestrian paths have been maintained for nearly 100 years even after the buildings have been scrapped and built. Thus networks of pedestrian paths should be recognized as the historical social infrastructure. Finally, pedestrian paths are valuable public and open space in high-density urban environment. They afford various commercial activities and buildings not facing driveways remain in the urban blocks. And wide pedestrian paths are utilized as the open terrace with deck and chairs.
As a bypass of the Tokaido road, there exist many convenience and entertainment facilities in Higashi Minoji of Nakasendo road, such as teahouses and Hatago. Before the invention of the automobile, all sections of Nakasendo road were exuberant. Currently, this road is less frequented and its facilities still remain as vestiges. The object of the present study is the Higashi Minoji section leading to Ochiai-Juku from Ota-Juku of Nakasendo road, and the section from Tsumago-Juku to Ochiai-Juku. These sections cover a length of approximately 70km and include Nagiso-machi of Nagano prefecture, Nakatsugawa city, Ena city, Mizunami city, Mitake-cho, Kani city and Minokamo city of Gifu prefecture. Different passes go through the mountains such as Magome-pass, Jumagari-pass, Jusan-pass and Biwa-pass. Up to now, the progress of the development of these districts has been slow. Consequently, a lot of ancient historical landscapes and ambiances still remain compared to Tokaido road. This study focused on the road that connects between the Shukuba. It is important to grasp the status of landscape resources and analyze their characteristics. Moreover, concerning the determination of the landscape plan, local residents should improve the care of Nakasendo road, Minosakamoto station and Nakatsugawa city. Tourists can quickly increase traffic in the region with the new opportunities offered by the Chuo Shinkansen stations. Improving the living environment of local residents can simultaneously improve the touristic environments in the region and the increase of tourists' traffic can also help in unifying the region and creating a new culture. In this study, authors conducted a survey in the Higashi Minoji of Nakasendo road in order to grasp tourists' information related to landscape resources. The conducted survey covered Higashi Minoji and Kisoji as a whole. Authors made a distribution of landscape resources and searched for common features in each section in order to grasp the characteristics of each region. First, in order to study the status of landscape resources in the region, authors collected 33 related materials such as books, pamphlets, maps etc. Then, conducted a six day field reconnaissance survey and eight days of validation survey. This survey helped in improving the authors' knowledge about Higashi Minoji of Nakasendo road and collecting the names of landscape resources and their locations (Figure 2-1 to Figure 2-3). Second, a total number of 474 landscape resources were classified according to their use into five categories. That is to say: "Natural objects", "historical construction material", "symbol", "historic streets' elements" and "ruins". The number and density of landscape resources were counted between the Shukuba and in each one of them (Table 2). Finally, principal component analysis was performed twice in order to clarify the distribution structure of landscape resources. Variables were set in the first analysis as the density of landscape resources in each Shukuba. In the second analysis, the ratio of landscape resources and the paving material of the roads between Shukuba were set as variables (Fig. 4, Fig. 5). In this research, the distribution of landscape resources at the Higashi Minoji of Nakasendo road was identified. Their names, locations and types were also collected and principal component analysis revealed the characteristics of the areas between Shukuba at the Higashi Minoji of Nakasendo road.
Kaetsu region is the northern part of Niigata prefecture. Major towns in this area are three castle towns(johka-machi); Murakami, Shibata, Muramatsu, and four port towns(minato-machi); Senami, Iwafune, Nuttari, Niigata. Additionally, there are many small towns in countryside(zaigoh-cho) along major roads and rivers. Many historical buildings remain in these towns. One type of historical building is Machiya, which is traditional merchants' commercial and residential building. External form of Machiya is classified into two types; Tateya whose ridge of the roof is vertical to the attached street and Yokoya whose ridge is horizontal. Besides, there is Machiya that is mixture of Tateya and Yokoya in Kaetsu area. The front part of this Machiya is Yokoya, and the back part, which is predominant, is Tateya. The pupose of this paper is to clarify the number and the percentage of remaining Yokoya-Tateya mixed Machiya in Kaetsu area, and to understand design character of this building. Major results are as fillows: 1) No Yokoya-Tateya mixed Machiya exist in nothern and southern Kaetsu region. On the other hand, there are many Yokoya-Tateya mixed Machiya in Naka-kanbara district and western Kita-kanbara district. It may be inferred that Yokoya-Tateya mixed Machiya was formed from Tateya. One of the reasons is becouse no Yokoya-Tateya mixed Machiya can be found in towns which are consisted purely of Yokoya. 2) Several types of facade design are extracted from 740 Yokoya-Tateya mixed Machiya. 3) As seen in old paintings and photographs, most Machiya in Niigata were Tateya in the late Edo and early Meiji period. The townscape changed in the mid meiji period, and many Yokoya-tateya mixed Machiya emerged. This might be a result of building guidelines proclaimed after the two great fires.
This article is a continuation of a study on eye fixation during a wayfinding walk of downtown Rome, which has heavy traffic. The first part reported on the state of route selection and wayfinding behavior in an unfamiliar overseas city, from a walking experiment that covers all the major tourist spots in Rome. This article will focus on “eye-fixation tendencies during the wayfinding walk.” In other words, the main purposes of this article are to 1) clarify the relationship between eye-fixation tendencies and wayfinding behavior between participants with different degrees of spatial cognition and walking routes, 2) examine the relationship between attentional tendencies and city space characteristics, 3) clarify the relationship between participant attributes and eye-fixation attributes by “object of eye fixation” and by “building façade site, ” 4) clarify the setup of “textual information” (particularly “storefront signs” and “road signs”) and eye-fixation tendencies in downtown Rome, which has heavy traffic, and 5) analyze the participants' eye movement patterns.
As a result, the following points were found: 1) The frequency of eye fixation over walking distance by attribute was fewer during the initial wayfinding walk, and mean frequency of eye fixation was overwhelmingly greater during “head-turning behavior, ” and by nodes, most marked in the “square.” 2) The mean rate of eye fixation by object of eye fixation during the wayfinding walk overall was highest for the “buildings' façades, ” and extremely low for “storefront signs” and “road signs, ” which were assumed to be prominent sources of information. By attribute, the group with a higher degree of spatial cognition apprehended subjects such as “buildings' façades, ” which were the clues for the wayfinding walk. 3) Mean time of eye fixation by attribute was rather short for the group with a low degree of spatial cognition, and by object of eye fixation, longest for “road signs.” 4) While the mean eye fixation distance during the wayfinding walk overall was 16.6m, it was somewhat shorter during “head-turning behavior” and “stopping/staying, ” and by attribute, was shortest for the group with a low degree of spatial cognition. 5) Mean height of eye fixation for all sections tended to increase for longer eye fixation distances. 6) The most frequent storefront signs installed on the route of the participants' wayfinding walk were “wall-mounted signs, ” followed by “channel lettering signs” and “window lettering signs, ” and there were extremely few “protruding signs” that are frequently seen in Japan. Similarly, among the types of “road signs” installed, there were overwhelmingly many “regulatory signs, ” such as “no parking signs, ” and of the “directional signs” that are helpful in wayfinding walks, there were few “road names” and “facility/directional signs.” 7) Of the frequency of eye fixation to “traffic” by vehicle type, automobiles accounted for 70.1% of the whole, followed by motorbikes (19.3%), and by mode, “parked vehicles” stood out regardless of section. 8) In terms of eye movement patterns over the entire wayfinding walk, “fixed eye fixation” and “fluid eye fixation” stood out for all attributes.
This research focuses on “Waterside Social Experiments”, exceptional measures for the practical use of rivers. Through the bibliographic/field/hearing surveys of 19 cities across the country, the state of use for river areas was grasped. Each instance was comparatively reviewed from the vantage points of business schemes and spatial structures. Through this, an overall picture of the Waterside Social Experiments was grasped, and an investigation into measures targeting river area space utilization and the building of a community cooperation structure was attempted. That result is as below. 1. The Waterside Social Experiments were carried out on rivers in general, from urban to suburban areas, and 24 instances were presents. 2. The implementation period for the Waterside Social Experiments was classified into the “Trial Period” and the “Development Period”. While the Trial Period had initiatives largely held in urban area rivers, the Development Period had its initiatives developed in the immense rivers of suburban areas. 3. River area space utilization for commerce in the types of stores was classified into a “Sight Frontage Usage Type” and an “Independent Store Type” based on the relationship between public and private land. Particularly in Sight Frontage Usage Types, space utilization was attained through integral usage of buildings along the river, as many types of operations are adopted in urban area rivers where the operational scope is very narrow. 4. Business schemes were frequently formed through managers － councils － businesses, and were classified into “Direct Types” and “Intermediate Types” through the relationship between occupants and businesses. 5. For commerce utilization initiatives in urban area rivers, where it can be assumed that various unspecified businesses will enter, application through the Intermediate Type business scheme can be frequently seen. The construction of an implementation structure geared towards fairness in business entry and harmonious business operation was attained. 6. Interaction with councils that occurred in the implementation structure differed in each case and the councils were tasked with the selection of occupants and businesses. Through this, the simplification of business schemes and harmonious business operations was attained. Moreover, councils formed by tenants shouldered occupancy and carried out architectural and legal guidance in the facilities. Through this, the construction of an “Area Leadership Type” implementation structure, where the councils became coordinators for their areas, was attained. As mentioned above, through initiatives in the Waterside Social Experiments, the sense of values was reevaluated for each area's waterside. Particularly in urban area rivers, where business space is limited, it became clear that the creation of a lively space was being attained with the expansion of a waterside dining spaces through the establishment of open cafes and streambeds and the like. Various relationships between managers － councils － businesses were formed through those initiatives. So, it also became clear that the construction of a harmonious collaborative system was being attained through the formation of an “Interim Organization” that coordinated between each organization/group.
This study about the student residence in public housing for regional vitalization, based on the aging in public housing resident, intends to clarify the student's motivation of entering and condition of their life and to get the knowledge for the future action from the example of "Meimai-housing-complex" in Hyogo prefecture. I took the survey to the students who live in public housing after examination took by the prefecture and the hearing to the staff of university and local government. From the investigation, it became clear that students have their life in regional society with normal or further evaluation. Also, they have similar evaluation in the results of their activities and life. It became clear about this that the situation cooperated with students each other and supported by university, prefecture stuff and regional society. It is expected that this support is one of the main reasons of a constant evaluation. Under this situation, students participate in many local activities in general degrees or further. Their participation has good influence on the regional society. Also for students, it is useful for their study, construction of sociality and finding job in the future. It would be a condition that decrease of house rent and commuting time will lead students, who are conscious about the local contribution, move in public housing. It would be also a condition that the students who want to leave parents are able to appeal them their consciousness about local contribution, or the cost increase is controlled, in case like the decrease of transportation expenses offsets the increase of living expenses. It was decided to establish the person entering public housing in the local government regulations in 2012, by the amendment of public housing law for the decentralization. Then, the situation was fixed that the policy such as "the student residence in public housing" took in " Meimai-housing-complex " is easy to be realized. However for continuing the system, it is important that the environment where university, local government and regional society cooperate with each other for the regional vitalization is fixed in advance. Also, it will be necessary to fix the environment where they understand the purpose of the system and watch over students for relieving their uneasiness.
This paper focuses on the mechanism of task distribution in a design process. US projects are comparatively researched to clarify the uniqueness of task distribution in Japanese projects. In every project, a design organization is composed with technically specialized design teams, such as architects, structural engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, plumbing engineers, and other consultants (Fig. 2). The design teams divide the design tasks based on their specialty. Among the design teams, an architectural design team is staffed with architects. Architects divide their design tasks based on their specialty as well. These task distributions both in a design organization and an architectural design team are investigated. Draftsman and interns are eliminated from the survey, due to their non-certified professional status. Projects in the both countries are investigated to clarify the task distribution among technically specialized design teams. Ten US Design-Bid-Build projects are researched as a case study of design organization (Table1). Many consultants are called upon the project based on the highly segmented technical specialization. In architectural design, specialized professions such as Spec Writer or Building Permit Experditer only been found in the US practices. In engineering design, plumbing engineers are recognized in all of the US projects, whereas, the plumbing design is usually taken care by mechanical engineers in Japan. Standardization of the CAD format helps fluent information exchange for task distribution among US professionals. Ten Japanese Design-Bid Build projects are surveyed as a comparison (Table2). Segmentation of the technical specialization is less obvious. However, technically specialized fabricators and suppliers offer their product design information free of charge, under the notion of “Design Assistance (sekkei kyoryoku), ” in the hopes of their products will be specified and installed in the construction. Projects in the both countries are further investigated to clarify different exercise of the task distribution in the architectural design team. In the US, some architects only participate the initial part of the design process such as SD and DD phases, and the others involve in the latter part of the design process such as DD and CD phases (Fig. 4). The distribution of the design tasks is recognized in the design process. Standardization of CAD format may help to accelerate information sharing among architects. In Japan, architects tend not to divide their design tasks. They are inclined to participate the project from the beginning of the design phase to the end of the construction administration phase (Fig. 5).
In late '90s, property securitization techniques brought in Japan from US to compliment deteriorated financing function of commercial banks due to huge bad loans. Now, property securitization market has been growing to roughly 30 trillion yen industry based on property value. In this paper, impacts by such movement of property securitization on compliance of existing building, which is deeply related to safe performance, are discussed. Disclosures in two major fields related to property securitization were scrutinized. One is disclosure by FSA about critical issues witnessed in the inspections on financial institutions and Financial Instruments Business Operators, which includes J-REITs' operating company. In those disclosures, total 4, 784 problematic operations through the inspection against regulated entities were scrutinized. Dozens of cases violating building compliance, largely regarding property trustees' operation, were sorted out. Against serious inappropriate operations in relation to transaction with building violation, FSA imposed administrative punishment on four entities. FSA's supervision would suppress potential inappropriate transactions relating to building violation. However the effective area of such suppression is limited to securitization transaction only and grandfathered infractions were out of scope in the FSA's inspection. Over the last two consecutive years, such building issues haven’t been described in FSA’s report, and then it’s expected that financial institutions appropriately improved their operation about those issues. And the other one is disclosure of property acquisition by J-REITs. In total 3,567 disclosures of property acquisition were scrutinized and 251 building violations by 190 properties were sorted out. Grandfathered infractions were out of scope. Intentional violations were found in these disclosures much more than the problems that need rectification by wear-and-tear or breakdown. In subsequent disclosures, with several exceptions, these issues were deleted or rectifications were described. Building violations were smaller on the buildings purchased from securitization vehicle than other in sellers' case. And the result was consistent with the assumption of operational improvement in financial institution but it wasn't significantly different by chi-square test. One previous study of Periodic Building Equipment Inspection Report, focusing on occurrence frequency of issues regarding emergency lighting equipment and mechanical smoke ventilation equipment, revealed that frequency of failure/infraction of emergency lighting equipment was roughly twice as much as one of smoke discharger. In contrast, in this study of J-REITs' disclosure, smoke discharger issue was roughly twice as much as emergency lighting equipment. Building equipment issues were likely caused by deterioration. But in case the issue was caused by inappropriate space use due to tenant-friendly works, smoke discharger issues are more likely. Tennant could be additional hurdle to take corrective actions. It is expected that's why number of smoke discharger related disclosures are larger than emergency lighting equipment one. Because the fundamental purpose of those disclosures by FSA or J-REITs isn't describing all the building details, there is limitation to sort out detail information of building issues. So this research couldn't get numerically perfect evidence to quantify the securitization effect, but it partly reveals expected positive effect on building compliance. The research will continue by utilizing other data in J-REITs and Periodic Building Equipment Inspection Report.
Japanese market of existing housing is fairly quiet and inactive in comparison to those markets in other developed countries. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (2013) pointed out that a lack of proper feedback system cause the market to evaluate only legal residual value of resale properties rather than intrinsic value of resale housing in Japan. They are proposing that an evaluation system needs to reflect not only the age of building but also quality of maintenance and retrofit and properly estimated economic life of housing. However, Yamazaki (2007) argues that most Japanese accept a notion that the housing asset decreases as they age, despite of maintenance and retrofit. Based on this perspective, Japanese buyers might not accept the proposed economic life of housing discussed above, and stick to a notion that housing value would decrease with time regardless of new evaluation system. According to Koo-Sasaki (2008), housing of Japan loses all the value in about 15 years old. Thus a life of housing in Japan is very short, many owners of Japanese housing do not work hard to raise their housing value. However it is necessary to make it clear whether most Japanese recognize that housing value decreases with time, even if the owner of housing works hard to raise its value. By the way, even in Japan, a lot of rental housing are managed properly because it is necessary to maintain their housing value in the market. We thought that the estimated rate of age depreciation in Japan would be about the same between privately owned housing managed well and rental housing. Therefore at first we divided contribution to a rent for rental housing into the land and building by performing a regression analysis of pooled data with using the Housing and Land Survey in the Statistics Bureau of the Japanese government. Based on the result, we estimated age depreciation of asset in commercial rental housing in Japan after we estimated age depreciation of rent in commercial rental housing. This was regarded as age depreciation of properly managed housing. We tried to clarify whether a life of well managed housing is longer than privately-owned properties in Japan. We analyzed the situation about a life of housing with the Weibull distribution related to housing destruction probability distributions. In addition, we compared our analysis in Japan with average housing in US based on resources from American Housing Survey in the US Census Bureau. As a result of analysis from a projection of age depreciation of rent, age depreciation rate of rental housing was more gradual than privately owned housing. In other words, a service life of rental housing was longer than a service life of non-managed average housing. This tendency was especially true in a metropolitan area like Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya and so on. It also became clear that a service life of housing in the Japanese metropolitan area, even though the age depreciation rate is more gradual in those area, is shorter than those in the United States. As described above, we could say that privately owned housing with proper maintenance and retrofit could have extended service life, if many Japanese recognize in resale housing market the value of proper care of their houses and that the care could increase their houses' economic value. Thus the system being established by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (2013) would be effective in increasing sales volume of secondhand housing market and extending a service life of housing in Japan.
Garbage collection sites are necessities of hygienic life but we place them on gaps of detached house area. This situation has a harmful effect on the landscape of detached house area. However, consideration to the garbage collection sites is being forgotten in the planning process of detached house area. There are no laws and rules written about how to regard garbage collection sites on “process” of detached house area planning. The purpose of this study is to clarify points of detached house area planning through the actual conditions of garbage containers, garbage collection sites and those maintenance.
In this study, four detached house areas, H, S, P and K, of investigation was selected with consideration to the difference of developed period, configuration of the ground and regulation of townscape. Investigation of this study is composed by local government interviews, fieldwork and resident questionnaire. Through local government interviews, it was made sure that the garbage collection sites are placed under their guidance. In fieldwork on all detached house areas of investigation, there are 213 containers on 188 garbage collection sites. The number of collected questionnaire is 615. Average of return rate on questionnaire, H, S and K, is 81.3 percent. The return rate on questionnaire at S is unclear because area maintenance company carried out questionnaire distribution with consideration to security.
There are several types of garbage container. The rate of box type garbage container usage is 75.6 percent. The mainly reason is that the faculty of box type garbage container against wind and animal harm is better than other types. But the box type garbage container often made in steel, and consequently those are difficult to harmonize with the surrounding scene. Furthermore, 56 percent of garbage container is placed on walkway / road, the rate of garbage containers placed outside of walkway / road is 33 percent. 67 percent of garbage container including containers that jut out onto the walkway / road obstruct walk safety to some degree. In front of the site where a person lives in, there are 94 percent of garbage containers on walkway / road. Portable garbage container is better choice to decrease harmful effect on the scenery of detached house area but compels residents to set it, put it away and clear snow around it. From the result of questionnaire, residents think it is important to prepare the place for garbage collection sites at detached house area planning and to place garbage containers outside walkway / road. And, residents need the garbage container form that is invisible inside directly and is harmonized with surrounding scene.
The results are summarized as follows; 1) It is important in first planning process of the detached house area to consider the condition of landform for garbage collection sites. 2) In case of present detached house area, it is necessary to think garbage collection sites and public space as related to each other. 3) It is important for the site of garbage container that ground is hard to get dirty, easy to clean up and easy to clear the snow off. 4) Portable garbage container is better choice to decrease harmful effect on the scenery of detached house area but maintenance of the garbage collection sites needs the residents' understanding and cooperation. 5) Because box type garbage container is functional, we need to look for the container design that match to the scenery of detached house area.
In order to clear the transition of design style, we have studied on the Duoi Keo design of wooden architectures in The Nguen Dynasty at Hue. The conclusion of this paper is as follows. : 1. To clarify the production age of the Duoi Keo design of wooden architectures, we have cleared the creation age and detailed repair of 34 wooden architectures in existence by the document and hearing. 2. We have classified the Duoi Keo design of wooden architectures to four types, A type is “両渦文型”, B type is “龍頭吐水唐草文型”, C type is “小龍頭渦唐草文型“, D type is “渦唐草文型”. 3. The transition of the Duoi Keo design is as follows. A-type →B-type →C-type and D-type. 4. We have presumed the new construction age of the wooden architectures in existence, that is that Dien Tho Ninh was built in 1820, the upstairs of Ngo Mon was built in 1921-23, and Hung Mieu was built in the middle of 19 century.
The three mill towns in the Northeastern U.S. emerged during the early stage of the industrial revolution are analyzed in terms of development of power canals and spatial structures in this series of papers. Following the former paper which introduced Lowell, MA, this is to analyze two more cases and then to discuss on innovation observed in each case and evolution process of mill towns as a whole. In 1814, the Boston Manufacturing Company (BMC) integrated all steps in the textile manufacturing process in one mill located in Waltham. The innovation known as the “Waltham system” brought them remarkable success in business, but after a series of expansion the mill used all the available water power emerged from the dam of ten feet high constructed across the Charles River. In its early days, the BMC owned only some two dozens of living units exclusive for mechanics and skilled workmen living with their families, and the majority of female workers lived in family groups not necessarily associated with the company. Later the BMC constructed corporate residences and so-called boarding houses but never took part in urban development of Waltham. During 1830's, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company (AMC) acquired 24000 acres land on both side of the Merrimac River and prepared a plan for a utopian-like new town, the later city of Manchester. The plan allocated the mill yard with two parallel power canals stretching almost a mile long along the east river bank, mill workers' community consisting of hundreds of housing units right next to the mill yard and the down town with grid-pattern streets and six parks on the rest of the river terrace. During 70 years of its growing period, AMC developed their factory on the mill yard incrementally from south to north, then to the west side of the river bank. AMC also took an active role in development of the down town by selling their own lots to various public and private sectors so that organized utility of land could be carried out. BMC and AMC as well as the canal company of Lowell were established by Boston associates, a group of Boston merchants led by Francis C. Lowell. In Waltham where they started their cotton industry they devised the first fully integrated textile mill in the world, but they depended on urban infrastructure of existing town. On the other hand, in Lowell, the next stage of their enterprise, they purchased a failing navigation canal and surrounding farmland to develop some ten planned industrial units consisting of a mill and housing for its workers, but urban infrastructure for civil services were poorly organized. In Manchester, their third stage, they planned and developed its down town as well as their industrial community. For this reason, it could be said that Manchester was an ultimate form of so-called Waltham system mill towns.
Before the middle of the 19th century, cherry trees could be seen in the mountainside forests, shrines, and temples of Kyoto, while from the 1880s to the 1930s, cherry trees were planted in urban areas. Additionally, a newly developed species of cherry, named SOMEI-YOSHINO, began to spread from 1904, from which time spring scene changed dramatically. In research concerning cherry trees in Kyoto before World War II, Hiroshi Takagi analyzes the social significance of planting cherry trees in terms of cultural history. He also discusses how SOMEI-YOSHINO were especially chosen as a nationalistic symbol and/or a symbol of the modern age and civilization. In his thesis, the traditional species YAMA-ZAKURA and SATO-ZAKURA were planted in areas with a traditional narrative like Heian Shrine, while SOMEI-YOSHINO were planted in areas that symbolized modern civilization like Kyoto City Zoo. In this paper, the planting of cherry trees is discussed in the context of landscape formation in modern Kyoto by investigating the planting process. From a botanical perspective, cherry trees are not suitable for roadside planting but instead favor waterside planting as they require a great deal of water. Furthermore, the planting method differs depending on the species. YAMA-ZAKURA lend themselves to a backdrop of Japanese red pine and maple trees, while SOMEI-YOSHINO, the new breed of cloned cherries, propagate quickly, making mass production possible and lending themselves to planting in rows. Meanwhile, SATO-ZAKURA, with their exquisite flowers, are best viewed individually and up close. We divided the planting locations of cherry trees in Kyoto into five groups according to their planting formation: (1) Waterside + Mountainside; (2) Facility type; (3) Facility type + Waterside; (4) Lake Biwa canal side; and (5) Kamo Riverside. Planting by groups was analyzed using original historical archives written by the planting organization and stored in Kyoto Prefecture and City Bureau. This allowed the planting context to be clarified with reference to the stakeholders, purpose, time period, space, and species of cherry trees in each location. Cherry trees planted before World War II in Kyoto did not all represent the idea of symbolism and psychology. The common keyword “scenic” often appears as the intent of planting. However, the purpose and context of the word “scenic” had various meanings and contexts since “scenic” had different purposes depending on the intention of each planting. In Kyoto, the shift to planting SOMEI-YOSHINO began in 1904. This shift to the new species also triggered a dramatic shift in the landscape style around urban areas.
Before the Japanese colonial period, the western part of Taiwan Island was exploited by Han Chinese immigrants from the coastal areas of southern China. The governance of the Great Qing imperial government did not reached over the mountain area of East Taiwan, which at the time was controlled by the Austronesian aboriginals. As the Han Chinese exploratory force expanded towards the east, aboriginals resisted because their territory was being invaded, and conflict between the two nations occurred frequently. In order to prevent the escalation of conflicts, the Qing imperial government drew the boundary line and two heterogeneity Territories were formed. Meanwhile, many Han Chinese traders crossed the boundary line and bartered to the aboriginals and trading works were normalized and monopolized by local leaders. However, Han Chinese traders didn't employ any storefronts in the aboriginal territory; instead, they conducted their business the peddler way. During the early Japanese colonial transition period, a designated market was appointed by the colonial government in order to better managed and regulate trading in the aboriginal territories. Therefore, spatial entity which are similar to storefronts were made in those places. During the mid-Japanese colonial period, the enforcement of aboriginal region development colonial policy blurred the boundary line, the once heterogeneity territories were united and governed by the colonial government. Han Chinese trader's rights were revoked and replaced by government agency, and “Trading stations” were established by the colonial government to replace the previous appointed designated market The research subject of this essay emphasized on the trading-places/trading-station established by the Han Chinese trader / Japanese colonial government in the Mt. Alishan area during the Qing Dynasty to the Japanese Colonial Period. Trader Liu’s Family pursued the trading works in Mt. Alishan area from 1892 A.D.(late Qing Dynasty) to 1927 A.D.(Mid-Japanese Colonial Period). After that, the trading rights was revoked by the colonial government and the trading work were resumed by the police association. Significant amount of research material such as the official historic documents of the colonial government and those trader's Biography are available. By comparing these historic data, this essay shows how the changing process of the trading works and spaces took place during this era. Multiple research point of views are used in this essay. The first viewpoint of this essay is to show the formative process of the trading spaces established by the Han nationality traders in the late Qing Dynasty. It talks about how the traders secured a base in the aboriginal territory and how logistic networks were established. This essay consider that the formative process as a trading system production process. The elements of the trading system such as the trader's base, aboriginal settlements, and the store in the city, etc., are analyzed in this essay. The second viewpoint of this essay is to show the impact on the reorganization of trading spaces in the aboriginal region by the colonial policy after the government had intervened. By analyzing how each element of the trading system and the modification of logistic networks were changed, this essay discuss the impact of the process on the transition of the trading system. The last viewpoint of this essay is to show the result of presenting the established trading stations and the new logistic networks after the old trading system had collapsed. Finally, by studying the trading-places/stations, this paper reveals how the business space formed and changed in the exclusive area (aboriginal territory) and what the causing factor resulted in.