1. Background and Purpose
Kagai collectively inherit many aspect of traditional Japanese culture, from architecture to music and cuisine both tangible and intangible. In the past, Kagai were ubiquitous throughout Japan. Today, the number of active Kagai is about 40. Furu-machi Kagai is a significant area, because the historic townscape, which is different from those in Kyoto or Kanazawa, is remained. Most traditional Kagai in comparatively large cities were lost by air raids in the Second World War. This study aims to clarify transition of distribution on buildings in Kagai at the period of 1930, 1958, 1972 and 2013.
2. Overview and Methodology
The gross area of Niigata is approximately 726 km2 and its population in 2015 is approximately 800,000. Niigata was originally established as a port-town and rebuilt on the present site in 1655. Furu-machi is located in the center of Niigata. In this study, field works, searching for old maps, interviews with experienced Geisha etc. were conducted.
3. Transition of distribution on buildings in Furu-machi Kagai
In 1930, Furu-machi was comprised of 17 Ryoriya, 27 Machiai, 98 Okiya.
In 1958, there were 27 Ryoriya, 21 Machiai, 52 Okiya.
In 1972, there were 27 Ryoriya, 18 Machiai, 48 Okiya.
In 2013, there were 12 Ryoriya, 2 Machiai, 2 Okiya.
Kagai buildings concentrate along the East and West Shin-michi street during the whole period.
1) Kagai buildings concentrate along the East and West Shin-michi street during the whole period.
2) The number of Ryoriya is larger than Machiai from 1958 to 2013. But there are more Machiai than Ryoriya in 1930.
3) The dense area of Okiya moved from the West Shin-michi to the East Shin-michi at the period between 1930 and 1958. Ryoriya was distributed on the entire area at the period between 1930 and 1958.
4) A large number of Machiai and Okiya were changed into to modern eating and drinking businesses.
5) East Shin-michi is regarded to be the most important area for townscape conservation and improvement.