日本建築学会計画系論文集
Online ISSN : 1881-8161
Print ISSN : 1340-4210
ISSN-L : 1340-4210
81 巻 , 726 号
選択された号の論文の24件中1~24を表示しています
  • K市I住宅団地における地域資源活用と高齢者の社会活動
    全 聖民, 大原 一興, 李 鎔根, 藤岡 泰寛
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1621-1629
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     There are many sprawled areas in hilly residential areas on the outskirts of mega cities. In recent years, some of these areas have a lot of issues such as aging population and delivery of social welfare services. The areas of steep slopes and steps bring about low physical and social activity. There is a growing body of evidence that physical and social activities can improve health for the elderly people. Furthermore, theirs participations of community is helpful to community revitalization. Therefore, Understanding the role of the built environment on social activity is a significant aspect. However, little empirical research has been conducted.
     This article aims to examine the associations between built environment attributes and social activity among older adults in hilly area. A sample of 790older adults residing in the study area provided reports of social participation and information about health, sociodemographic characteristics, social networks, and perceptions about features of their residential environment. Measure of distance between their home and four locations deemed to be conducive to social participation were obtained from a geographic information system (GIS).
     Relationships between hills effect and household composition were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that in the hilly areas they move to early when living alone. And results obtained from conducting a two-way analysis of variance using standardized scores show that age and hills effect were a significant main effect of social activity. On the other hands, there was a nonsignificant main effect of hills on the individual health states.
     Finally multilevel logistic regression models were used for the analyses. The following results were obtained: first, under 74year, Individual health states, IADL and quantity of social network can encourage social activity. Environmental factors are nonsignificant correlated with social activity. Second, over 75year, Individual health states, IADL, quantity of social network, and some of environmental fact such as hill and proximity to facilities (community facilities, grocery store) are significant correlated with social activity. Findings show that impact of the built environment is significant with advancing age.
  • 石橋 達勇, 中野 明
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1631-1640
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     This paper describes the characteristics of planning and management of central sterile supply department (C.S.S.D.) in acute hospital having installed off-site sterilization service. We concluded the following points. .
    1) Hospitals having installed off-site sterilization service conduct a high number of surgical procedures in relation to the number of beds. At C.S.S.D., management and rational maintenance of cleaning and sterilization machines, are being conducted in accordance with the situation. .
    2) As fit economic conditions, cleaning, sterilization and responsibilities could be allocated between C.S.S.D. and off-site sterilization service center to make it possible to plan and maintain the machines of simpler C.S.S.D.
  • 北川 啓介, 榊原 崇文, 野上 将央
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1641-1651
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     Industrial Revolution became a major turning point for architecture and the invention of new building materials has enabled new ways of opening windows as seen in horizontally continuous windows. Following that, boundaries between interior and exterior of buildings are diversified. In the design of main room of modern houses, architect's understanding and thoughts on its relationship to the surroundings and adjacent rooms are observed thorough the boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to reveal spatial configuration of modern houses from comprehensive understanding of interior/exterior ambit which is composed of a main room, adjacent spaces and surroundings.

     The flow of this research is as below:
     1) Select 72 modern houses as the examples to represent the research objective.
     2) Extract the form of ambit of the selected modern houses, and typify the configuration.
     3) Extract the characteristic of the ambit, and typify the configuration.
     4) Create a matrix by the types of the form and the characteristic of the ambit to derive the configuration format of the main room of modern houses based on the interior/exterior ambits. Through the investigation of the genealogy of the format, the major spatial configurations of the main room in the overall modern houses were analyzed.

     As a result, 15 configuration format of the main room of modern houses in consideration of the form and characteristic of the interior/exterior ambits are derived. In addition, 5 major frameworks are grasped as below:
     1) The building element of the main room significantly stipulates the use of the room (composition and space).
     2) The relationship between the main room and the surroundings diversifies human behavior (human and surroundings).
     3) The main room and human behavior create strong relationship entirely (human and space).
     4) The main room and spatial composition support human act in the room (composition and act).
     5) Various border elements in interior/exterior enhance the relationship of the interior/exterior (act and relationship).

     Through the investigation on genealogy of the format of the selected modern houses based on the interior/exterior ambits, the transitions of each architect's thoughts in each period were found as well. Moreover, the differences of modern houses' composition of whole house and main room were found through the comparison with preceding investigation.
  • 建築記号群の解釈としての認知地図の分析に基づく建築・都市空間のデザインに関する研究(その2)
    木曽 久美子
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1653-1663
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     As with the last paper, here we focus on the cognitive map that expresses the interaction between architectural/urban space and human beings in order to develop a design method for the Human-Environment System in which all the elements including human beings continue to interact with each other. Sketch maps drawn by university students are analyzed as externalized drawings of the cognitive map as with the previous paper.
     This paper proposes a method to evaluate co-occurrence probabilities between architectural signs on a sketch map via logistic regression analysis and analyze the disposition of the architectural signs with their probabilities on a geographical map. A simulator created as below is used to identify the impact of the change of some characteristics of the architectural signs on their co-occurrence probabilities, considering their application in Human-Environment System design as follows.
     First, by focusing on the meaning aspects of the abovementioned interactions, the cognitive mapping process is understood as a thinking process through signs on the basis of the concept of semiosis proposed by C.S. Peirce. Therefore, the cognitive map is modeled from the interpretation of the architectural signs that represent the architectural/urban space using the concept of “architectural sign, ” “architectural/urban space, ” and “cognitive map, ” following Peirce's concept of “sign, ” “object, ” and “interpretant.” On this basis, the “co-occurrence” between two co-occurring architectural signs is understood as the relationship between “sign” and “object.” Then co-occurrence types of all the pairs of architectural signs are classified into three categories based on his concept of “icon, ” “index, ” and “symbol.”
     We then propose variables for the relationships among the co-occurring architectural signs to determine these signs' co-occurrence types. Then using the GIS database created from the drawn sketch map, the logistic functions are obtained via logistic regression analysis, which uses the proposed variables as independent variables. From these logistic functions, we can predict in which co-occurrence type the co-occurrence probabilities will be higher (or lower).
     Then we create a simulator on which architectural signs' dispositions with the co-occurrence probabilities are drawn on the geographical map using the obtained logistic functions. Thus, we analyze the impact of the change of some characteristics of architectural signs on the disposition of their co-occurrence probabilities on the geographical map.
     Each university is found to have a different co-occurrence tendency depending on the co-occurrence types of its architectural signs through the analysis. For example, in Matsuoka campus, which is located far from the center of the city and whose students use their own cars every day, the co-occurrence tendency of an architectural sign located along the bypass far from the university is unaffected by the change to architectural signs near the university; however, it is affected by changes to architectural signs along the bypass. In addition, some architectural signs co-occur with many others, such as those for convenience stores or supermarkets, the change of whose architectural characteristics can have a major impact on the co-occurrence tendency of the targeted area.
     The analysis method and results presented here show the possibility of considering the impact of architectural design on the cognitive map of the targeted area, which indicates a way forward for the Human-Environment System design.
  • 指物(指付け技法)の変遷過程と歴史的木造架構の類型化に関する研究 その1
    堀江 亨, 源 愛日児, マーティン モリス , 後藤 治, 大野 敏
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1665-1674
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper represents an initial attempt to understand and document the role of “sashimono” (tenoned beams), important horizontal members in the frames of traditional Japanese timber buildings. Hitherto, they have been noted mainly as sashigamoi (deep-section lintels), capable of bearing load and permitting the omission of intermediate posts and the achievement of clear spans. Focusing on minka (vernacular houses), this research identifies 3 other categories of sashimono, namely aisle-incorporating sashimono, bay-enclosing sashimono, and frame-stabilizing sashimono. Our results demonstrate that discussion of sashimono from the standpoints of direction of span, loading, and tenoning characteristics can further our understanding of minka structure.
  • 諏訪 昌司, 趙 沖 , 布野 修司, 川井 操
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1675-1683
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     This paper clarifies the house types and their transformation in Xiguan Dawu district, Guangzho, which is the old port city in southern coast of China, based on intensive field study. Traditional houses are usually classified into three types which are xiguan dawu, zhutongwu and qilou. Xiguan dawu is the form of quadrangle, si- he-yuan, zhutongwu is a type of town house with narrow frontage and qilou is the form of 2 storied shop houses with arcade. Authors clarified their variants of each type, .that are new urban house types. And this paper clarifies the transformation pattern of house types and discusses the relationship between house types, focusing on transformation process of house.
     The study is mainly based on the following field surveys, the contents of which are (a) land uses; distribution residential, public, sanitary, commercial, etc., facilities, (b) distribution of the buildings the number of floors and the type of building construction and (c) measuring house plans (31 dwelling units) with making questionnaires to inhabitants on attributes of family members date of building, ownerships, rental fee, and so on.
     Xiguan Dawu district, Guangzho had been prosperous district as the center of the commerce and economy in Southeastern Coastal area of China, from ancient times to Qing dynasty. Guangzho is one of the oldest international port open to the foreigners from the west including Muslim Arabs and the first port where England established the concession in the mid-19th century.
     Xiguan Dawu district is divided into 22 subdistricts, 3 of which are the targeted area being consisted of 7 shequs(Neighbourhood units).Streets of the area are classified into three levels. The first level streets are used by various mobiles to which many facilities and shops faced. They are the busiest streets and full of stalls bicycle-drawn carts and peddlers in the morning and evening market. The third level streets which are branched from the first level streets or the second level streets are directly connected to individual dwelling units. The third level streets often end to crud-sac and are used as semi-public space.
     Most of the area are residences. Government agencies, educational institutions, medical facilities and other public facilities Offices are distributed in the area. In addition, commercial facilities and business facilities, such as firm are distributed.
     Authors classified 34 house plans(31 measured + 3 from documentations), focusing on number of spans in front and depth. We can still find Chinese traditional courtyard house types, xiguan dawu, zhutongwu and qilou, but almost all houses are occupied by several households. Our field surveys shows the target area is rapidly changing.
     As for new house types, this paper clarified the new urban house types, i.e. house types sharing exterior stairways and semi-detached types. Discussing the relationship between basic house types and their variations, we identify the transformation pattern of house types. Pointing out the existence of new urban house types and clarifying transformation pattern of house types are the major results of this paper.
  • 牛島 朗, 中 純一, 中園 眞人
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1685-1694
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     The aim of this study is to make clear the effects of reorganization process of administrative boundaries in the early Meiji era on the municipal amalgamation by a case study on Yamaguchi prefecture, and to obtain new knowledge related to regional planning method. Before the Meiji municipal amalgamation, the Meiji government had determined two kinds of administrative districts about family register and education. After that, the administrative functions of these districts were handed over to municipalities having spent several decades. During the years that intervene, the coordination among these kinds of administrative districts had been in disarray. However, these kinds of administrative districts had been coordinated comparatively smoothly in Yamaguchi prefecture. Therefore we analyzed the designation process of these antecedently determined districts in Yamaguchi prefecture. The results are as fellows.
     1) At first, two kinds of administrative districts were determined for different purpose of family registration control and development educational facilities. Therefore, the both total number of districts were largely different. However, to enhance efficiency in administrative functions the both number of districts had been closed by the Meiji municipal amalgamation in Yamaguchi prefecture. Thereby the boundaries of new municipalities after merger were matched two preceding districts in most of the areas.
     2) New municipalities after the Meiji municipal amalgamation were able to classify into five types based on three kinds of boundaries. The boundaries of new municipalities coincided with two preceding districts classified into A-Type. The boundaries of new municipalities coincided with only family registration districts classified into B-Type. On the contrary, the boundaries of new municipalities coincide with only educational districts classified into C-Type. And the boundaries of new municipalities of not coinciding with antecedently matched administrative districts classified into D-Type. The boundaries of three different districts classified into E-Type.
     3) In Yamaguchi prefecture, about 70% of new municipalities classified into A-Type. Exactly, the previous adjustments of two kinds of districts for each area by the Meiji municipal amalgamation had great effect on the municipal amalgamation. On the other hand, about 20% of new municipalities classified into D-Type. In these cases, new municipalities took over the role of only family register districts. In other words, new municipalities of D-Type had been faced the issues related to school education. After that, school districts were reorganized by the Meiji municipal amalgamation. However, there were still issues on school facilities administration in parts of Yamaguchi prefecture.
  • -昭和初期から現在における新潟市中央区古町の三業を対象として-
    久保 有朋, 岡崎 篤行, 松井 大輔
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1695-1703
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     1. Background and Purpose
     Kagai collectively inherit many aspect of traditional Japanese culture, from architecture to music and cuisine both tangible and intangible. In the past, Kagai were ubiquitous throughout Japan. Today, the number of active Kagai is about 40. Furu-machi Kagai is a significant area, because the historic townscape, which is different from those in Kyoto or Kanazawa, is remained. Most traditional Kagai in comparatively large cities were lost by air raids in the Second World War. This study aims to clarify transition of distribution on buildings in Kagai at the period of 1930, 1958, 1972 and 2013.

     2. Overview and Methodology
     The gross area of Niigata is approximately 726 km2 and its population in 2015 is approximately 800,000. Niigata was originally established as a port-town and rebuilt on the present site in 1655. Furu-machi is located in the center of Niigata. In this study, field works, searching for old maps, interviews with experienced Geisha etc. were conducted.

     3. Transition of distribution on buildings in Furu-machi Kagai
     In 1930, Furu-machi was comprised of 17 Ryoriya, 27 Machiai, 98 Okiya.
     In 1958, there were 27 Ryoriya, 21 Machiai, 52 Okiya.
     In 1972, there were 27 Ryoriya, 18 Machiai, 48 Okiya.
     In 2013, there were 12 Ryoriya, 2 Machiai, 2 Okiya.
     Kagai buildings concentrate along the East and West Shin-michi street during the whole period.

     4. Conclusions
     1) Kagai buildings concentrate along the East and West Shin-michi street during the whole period.
     2) The number of Ryoriya is larger than Machiai from 1958 to 2013. But there are more Machiai than Ryoriya in 1930.
     3) The dense area of Okiya moved from the West Shin-michi to the East Shin-michi at the period between 1930 and 1958. Ryoriya was distributed on the entire area at the period between 1930 and 1958.
     4) A large number of Machiai and Okiya were changed into to modern eating and drinking businesses.
     5) East Shin-michi is regarded to be the most important area for townscape conservation and improvement.
  • 河野 康治
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1705-1713
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study is aimed to clarify what kind of thought does Naoki have as the engineer of urban planning in Osaka city. Naoki had been worked for seven years for Osaka city, and it seems that he had given the significant impact on making the framework of the “Great Osaka”
     On the influence of the First World War, Osaka city faced rapid increase of urban population and needed to plan the development of urban functions. In April of 1917, urban improvement plan committee had been installed in Osaka city for the survey and design to create the improvement plan of Osaka city. In 1918, city development division had been installed in Osaka city and Naoki became the director. After Osaka city had changed the division from the city development division to the urban planning division, Naoki had become the director of that division. As the engineering leader in Osaka city, he promoted the urban planning projects such as city development project, urban planning project and the land readjustment project.
     Naoki had always minded the dangers of falling into idealism through the projects. He prefer realistic plan to ideal plan as the engineer. He had been believed that it was important to make the plan on the view of the geographical conditions and social conditions of the land. And he had also believed that the awareness of citizens was crucial for the implement of the plan.
     During planning the boundary line of Great Osaka in the suburbs, he thought that it is important to make not the “surgical” based urban planning but the “preventive” based urban planning as “creative urban planning”. His western visit for survey from 1920.1 to 1921.4 had realized him that western cities had been made it a priority to the development of suburbs than the improvement of old cities. On the contrary, Japanese cities had been promoted preferentially by the latter method than the former method.
     He had been believed that the land readjustment project was the best method for the implementation of Great Osaka which was the expansion planning of Osaka city. He had been contributed to make the plan of Great Osaka with his faith as the engineer.
     From this study, it became cleared that his faith and how he had been contributed to make the plan of Great Osaka. In addition, it also became cleared that he grasp the “Garden City” thought positively from his experience of visit the garden city in UK, however he had estimated that it had not been realistic method for Osaka city without any change.
  • 金 ドン 均 , 有馬 隆文, 坂井 猛
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1715-1722
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     In Japan, even though sloped area is much larger than plain area, plain area is used for public facilities and industrial sites preferentially, and consequently, there are a lot of sloped urban districts which are commonly for residential use. Generally in sloped urban districts, there are various inconveniences for living due to the physical characteristics, such as insufficient road networks and many steep hillsides/stairs, so these inconveniences are viewed as the key elements inducing some problems such as depopulation and increased number of vacant house/lot at such districts. Therefore, in this study, the problem related to vacant house and lot is focused as the subject to solve among various kinds of problems emerging at sloped urban districts, and Nagasaki city is chosen as the targeted city to conduct a series of researches.
     In the first half of this study, through a statistical analysis on the relationships between the emergence of vacant house/lot and physical residential environment which were investigated based on an on-the-spot survey, some significant environmental factors were clarified. Then, in the last half of this study, utilizing the concept of walking energy expenditure, accessibility from each residential site to daily facility were digitized in order to quantitatively detect and assess the relationship between the emergence of vacant house/lot and the walking energy expenditure.
     The results obtained through this study can be concluded as follows: (1) It was difficult to renew or convert buildings and lands due to the legal responsibility of having a building site join the frontal road in sloped urban districts which comparatively has small number of roads in the past; however it has now become easy to do so even in sloped urban districts since designated streets have been implemented. Consequently, “join-the-frontal-road” issue is no more one of the influential factors to the vacant house/lot emergence. On the other hand, the car access-related factors such as the presence of garages and the width of frontal roads show significant impact on preventing houses and lots from being vacant. (2) For the residents whose main travel mean is walking, accessibility to out-of-house facilities is highly important, and the walking energy expenditure which is utilized as an index to evaluate the accessibility has statistically significant effects on the emergence of vacant houses and lots. Specifically, the distribution rate of vacant houses and lots is low in the districts which show high accessibility to educational facilities (e.g. kindergartens and elementary schools) and the place where residents can take public transportation. (3) Dissimilarly to general urban planning for plain sites which have few slopes and undulation, not only distance to walk but also undulation of routes significantly influence the energy consumption when it comes to sloped urban districts, and so the undulation of routes is needed to be involved in the calculation of accessibility.
     Considering the results above, for the further progress of solution toward the issues related vacant houses/lots in sloped urban districts, the necessity to evaluate accessibility utilizing the concept of walking energy expenditure is highlighted. Also, it is implied that there is a clear need to construct road networks and conduct locational induction of facilities based on the result of such evaluation on walking energy expenditure.
  • 保持 尚志, 片岡 由香, 倉知 徹, 江川 直樹
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1723-1731
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     Parking lots in the housing complex in suburbs built in the high-growth period has been expanded with increase of the number of private cars owned by the household. On the housing complex management, it is necessary to consider the need for further expansion.
     On the other hand, in the housing complex built between 1965 and 1974, the need for redevelopment is growing. However these housing complexes are not able to be rebuilt cause of the disagreement of households or the financial problems. On the redevelopment by utilizing stock, it is necessary to plan according to future demand of private cars.
     In this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted as the target households living in Otokoyama housing complex where is in Kyoto Yawata. The purpose of this study are as follows, 1. the actual conditions of use of parking lots and holding of owned car are revealed, 2. the status of the change of ownership are revealed from the household's intention. Based on the results, 3. the demand of parking lots in redevelopment is considered, 4. the parking lots issues and the concept for making a plan are considered.
     From the results of the questionnaire survey, the following became clear. 1. 70.9% was private car ownership rate in the condominium housing complex (Condominium). 56.7% was rate in the rental housing complex (Rental). 2. In the young couple households and the households with underage children, the ownership rate was high. 3. In the Condominium, many households rent the parking lots on the outside of site. 4. In the Rental, ownership rate was higher than introduced rate, however there was not luck of parking lots because of vacant houses.
     From the results of the questionnaire survey to intention of the owned car, the following became clear. 1. The ownership rate in the Condominium is reduced to 67.8% in the future contrary to past trends. 2. The ownership rate in Rental is raised to 58.4%.
     Based on the results, "Needed number of parking lots" in redevelopment was estimated. In the Condominium, it is 957 units from the current ownership rate and 915 units from the future, therefor there is 4.4% reduction. In the Rental it is 2,609 units from current and 2,688 units from the future therefor there is 3.0% increase.
     The parking lots issues redevelopment without rebuilding was considered as follows. 1. The ownership rate in the future was under the rate of average in Kyoto prefecture or Yawata city. Therefore the parking plan of the redevelopment should be considered based on the status of holdings in households. 2. There is shift of number of parking lots in the future demand. Therefore the parking plan should be support their trend.
     The concept of planning in redevelopment was as follows. In the parking plan, it is necessary to be considered to ensure parking lots on the outside of housing complex as the area management for parking lots, and to plan parking lots that it is easy to divert from parking lots to the other common space or reverse.
  • オマール ハーモディ , 趙 世 晨
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1733-1741
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     Many areas in the Aswan region are susceptible to floods and torrents that often cause loss of lives and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure. The hazardous situation is exacerbated by urban growth extending towards the risk areas. To ameliorate the danger, three key issues for urban growth management were studied, namely (i) estimation of the pace of urban sprawl (ii) identification of urban areas located in regions that would be affected by flash floods (iii) examining the characteristics of urban growth in high risk areas. Since official data and field data were limited, we used two free sources of satellite data. First, we simulated the occurrence of torrents and identified the risk areas using the GSSHA model in WMS. Second, we studied historical imagery of the area using Google Earth to examine changes in urban growth in 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2013. The results showed urbanization in risk areas to be 59.79 % in 2001, then rising to 65.45 % in 2013. Hence, our findings indicated that urban expansion in the risk area was greater than that in the safe area. The creation of a hazard contour map in Arc GIS using WMS data based on water depth enabled a better appraisal of the risk area. As the urban sprawl grew, so did the size of residence blocks. In the same context, it was observed that on average, residence blocks in the risk area were bigger than those in the safe area, and also bigger than those built in earlier years. The findings from this study would be useful to urban planners and government officials to make informed decisions on urban development to benefit the community, especially those living in risk areas from torrents.
  • 石田 航星, 志手 一哉, 壹岐 健章
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1743-1753
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     Building information modeling (BIM) is an important technology in the design and construction of buildings. BIM is also used in the construction of building equipment. In recent years, construction companies have been promoting the introduction of BIM. Typically, the technologies of building construction are introduced for each department. However, BIM has been promoting technology introduction beyond departments and companies. Therefore, we analyzed the process of introducing BIM in construction companies. We also analyzed the proportion of companies that introduced BIM, process of technology introduction, and the organizational form of the construction companies.
     In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey of construction companies about BIM. Based on the questionnaire results, we performed an analysis of corporate organization as follows.
     1. Analyze the relationship between the respondents of a department and technician experts by cross tabulation.
     2. Classify respondents by factor analysis.
     3. Discuss the motivation behind introducing BIM by covariance structure analysis.

     The percentage of companies that have used BIM in their construction projects was approximately 32%. Moreover, 40% of the survey respondents collect BIM information. More than 50% of the respondents think that construction work using BIM is more efficient than the traditional construction work. These results mean that BIM entered a stage of popularity. On the other hand, the percentage of engineers that manipulate 3D-CAD or BIM is only approximately 23%. The occupation of the highest percentage of 3D-CAD users is construction engineers of building equipment. Architects are also a high percentage of 3D-CAD users. Then, we created a contingency table (Table 4) for the relationship between the current department and the specialized field of survey respondents. All personnel who belong to the building construction department are part of the specialized field of building construction. On the other hand, 22% of the personnel who belong to the architectural design department are part of a different specialized field of architectural design. Next, we performed an exploratory factor analysis on the questionnaire results. Maximum likelihood estimation with a promax rotation of 32 Likert scale questions was conducted on data gathered from 212 participants. The results of the promax rotation of the solution are listed in Table 8. When loadings less than 0.35 were excluded, the analysis yielded a seven-factor solution. The seven factors were labeled as follows: "Expectations of BIM (Factor 1)", "The degree of information gathering about BIM (Factor 2)", "The need for the introduction of front-loading (Factor 3)", "IT skill levels of the respondents (Factor 4)", “Adequacy of information equipment in the belonging company (Factor 5)”, “Growth potential of the construction industry (Factor 6)”, and “Dissatisfaction with the current construction technology (Factor 7).” Moreover, we performed a hierarchical cluster analysis by selecting three factors—Factor 2, Factor 4, and Factor 6. As a result, we classified four respondent groups. In addition, we analyzed of the motivation behind the introduction of BIM by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results of SEM analysis are shown in Fig. 12. SEM supposes that motivations behind introducing BIM are to improve productivity of the construction work.
  • - 西尾市を事例とした小学校施設ストックの地域との複合利用条件の設定 -
    川野 紀江, 村上 心, 恒川 和久, 柴田 美里
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1755-1763
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     Surplus classrooms of primary are increasing by declining birthrate. The primary schools' facilities may share the function for local inhabitants performed in other public accommodation. In this study, we set conditions on mutual utilization between education by primary school and community functions.
     we clarified these matters as below.
     There are 110 surplus classrooms in the primary schools of Nishio-city, and most are used as learning rooms, multipurpose rooms and meeting rooms. Approximately 40% of surplus classrooms are used less than five hours a week.
     As for the activities carried out in community assembly facilities, in decreasing order, "study, talk", "get physical activity", "make a sound" and "craft”. Occupancy ratios of the rental rooms of community assembly facilities are low with approximately less than 25%. As explained above, primary school facilities can accept the activities of the community assembly facilities in public rooms without disturbing the use time of school teachers and children.

     At the points of rooms' property and amount of utility time, it is available in activities performed in the general rooms of community assembly facilities as specifications of the present surplus classrooms. Surplus classrooms can accept activities performing ones in the special rooms of community assembly facilities when we renovate there.
     Considering the security of the pupils, it is necessary to locate the surplus classrooms where pupils' flow do not cross community use's flow, and they are near the teachers' office.
  • 近代の橋本市中心市街地における住宅建築に対する木材の供給 その3
    平山 育男
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1765-1772
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     This article performed analysis of "Zasiki-hikae" made at the time of construction of Tuno-zasiki of 1924 and "Betu-zasiki-hikae" made on the occasion of the building of the Betu-zasiki of 1929 at the Inabas house in Hashimoto city. I considered the way of the wood supply, and it was said that following many points were clear.
     In the construction of Tuno-zasiki of 1924, the wood was supplied from three places of Simoiti, Osaka, local Hashimoto. The materials which it is hard to obtain in Hashimoto were supplied from Simoiti and Osaka. The lumber mill of Hashimoto provided caudex materials and the amount of payment extended to 93% of wood costs. In other words, the wood supply of the construction of Tuno-zasiki followed a method of the Ikenagas detached room construction of 1920. And I can consider that a method to obtain high-quality materials outside local Hashimoto is generalized.
     When Betu-zasiki was construction in 1929, the lumber was supplied from Shimoichi, Osaka, Kouyaguti and local Hashimoto. Of these, the lumber supply from Shimoichi and Osaka was a choice wood, and the payment to a lumberer of Hashimoto remained in 43%. In this way, the ratio of materials supply except Hashimoto is high by the construction of the Betu-zasiki. In addition, it was the first example of the use of American timber in Hashimoto on a document. It was a supplier of local Hashimoto to have supplied American timber with the building of the Betu-zasiki. They were used at the second-floor beam, long wood mainly on the roof truss and boards. The purchase amount of the American timber is 260.34 yen; the ratio among the wood costs total sum of the American timber 13%, the ratio for caudex materials of the American timber was 20%. The volume of the American timber was a 157.4 cube shaku. This becomes 32% for the 497.5 cube shaku that material volume was demanded from.
     This article showed that it was generalized to obtain high quality materials in Osaka with the building with the cityscape of Hashimoto at the end of the Taisho era. The same thing was performed in 1929 and was able to confirm the use of the American timber equal to 32% at least material volume, too. It was said that the use of the American timber advanced after the Great Kanto Earthquake, but was able to confirm that the use of these mainly on caudex materials advanced even to the general house in the town rapidly at relatively early.
  • 平賀 あまな, 野口 沢子
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1773-1782
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     The Former Crown Prince’s Palace (Akasaka Palace) was Japan’s first Western-style palace constructed in 1909. Dr. Tokuma Katayama conducted the construction project as the head architect of the Imperial Household Ministry. This palace was designated as a national treasure in 2009. This is a monumental architecture which represents the Meiji era. Though it was designed by Japanese architects, its exterior and interior decoration reached as high degree of perfection as real western palaces. Especially, the exterior decoration represents the Neo Baroque style. The objective of this research is to understand the design process of the exterior decoration by analyzing the documents in the imperial household archives. The archives include the documents, drawings and blueprints on the construction of this palace, and many of which were opened to public in 2011.

    The research clarified the following points: 1) According to his telegraphs and local newspaper articles, Dr. Katayama visited the United States to purchase steel frames in 1899. Before traveling, he had decided on the basic design of the exterior, but he had a strong desire to improve the decoration by combining the Japanese, European and American art. We found several drawings and blueprints of the front elevation in the imperial household archives, which show that he had the idea to use the Japanese motifs from the very beginning of the construction project.

    2) French decorators participated not only in the interior decoration, but also in the facade decoration. It is known that the interior decoration was imported from European countries, mainly from France. The furniture was supplied by Henri Fourdinois and Georges Hoentschel. In our past research, we pointed out that they played important roles as interior decorators in the construction project. The account documents in the archives show that almost all facade decorations were supplied by Hoentschel. We also find the drawings and the receipt of the sculpture of western knight which was purchased by Seiki Kuroda, a famous Japanese painter, who was in charge of research for the interior decoration for the palace.

    3) Dr. Katayama decided to use Japanese motifs into the sculptures designed by the French decorators. Several decorative models of the sculptures imported from France were changed during the construction work. The comparison between the drawings and real sculptures shows that the key motifs were changed into Japanese motifs, such as chrysanthemum and paulownia, which are the imperial crest, and Japanese armor.
  • 岩谷 洋子
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1783-1790
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     Francesco Borromini(1599-1667) projected the Oratorian institute in Rome, and his design of The Second Courtyard is represented in an engraving by Domenicio Barrière(ca. 1610/20-1678), an engraver and Borromini's reliable collaborator. This engraving is one of the illustrations in the book of Roma ricercata...(1658), by fruitful Fioravante Martinelli(1599-1667), also Borromini's collaborator, and close friend. So, by examination of this engraving it is possible to understand Borromini's intention of The Second Courtyard project.
     First, comparing with the section-perspective of The Second Courtyard in Opus architectonicum, two figures differ widely in that the 3rd story is totally eliminated in Barrière's engraving. But by making CG model, it is confirmed that the 3rd story in the front seems clearly from the view-point, and the roof top is recognizable on the lateral sides. It is considered that the modification in the engraving reflects Borromini's opinion to express his original idea of the giant order distinctively, to remove a pile of horizontal lines, and to emphasize the concentration of the courtyard. In addition, many piers of arcade make the image of the space so profound, but the front facade of the north side isn't accommodated to its interval and it is depicted more highly. Consequently, it seems that the facade of the giant order has much more scale and vigor than the actual one.
     Secondly, from the viewpoint of the perspective, the vanishing point is assumed not to be on one point, but to be on the vertical line, with a certain extent in the composition. Judging from the engraving of San Giovannni in Laterano, depicted also by Barrière 4 years before The Second Courtyard, it is recognized that the difference of the vanishing point is not the cause of Barriere's immaturity of the skill. He dared to do it, and the purpose is that the height of the central facade appears sufficiently high without the 3rd story, and also the giant order looks high and vigorous.
     About The Second Courtyard, Martinelli described it as an attractive spot in Rome with his guidance. And also Virgilio Spada(1596-1662), who was a directive Oratorian for the project and the collaborator of Borromini on Opus architectonicum, praised the giant order borrowed from Michelangelo's Palazzo dei Conservatori. In the engraving, Borromini's The Second Courtyard is surrounded by the two-story house with a flat roof, like Michelangelo's Palazzo dei Conservatori in the Piazza Campidoglio. Borromini mentioned the name of Michelangelo to defend his innovative design, and his own creativity as an architect, not as an executor of the ornament. He intended to efface the image of the design of the predecessor Paolo Maruscelli. Moreover, Borromini planned the splendid courtyard as a spacious oasis in the crowded city of Rome, by simple giant order, not by a terrace with some layers.
     Moreover Barrière executed 3 engravings about another project of Borromini, Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza in the same time with The Second Courtyard. Considering them from the viewpoint of the perspective, it is recognized that in only one case in which the courtyard and the temple are depicted, the vanishing point is also be assumed vertical line, with a certain extent in the composition. As a result, the symbolic temple is represented more highly and definitely, although it is in the end of the profound courtyard. So, the ingenious church designed by Borromini looks magnificent. In this case, Barrière also operated his perspective technique to represent the forceful space and architecture designed by Borromini.
  • -ジョルジョ・グラッシとアルド・ロッシにおける社会理念と造形理論-
    片桐 悠自
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1791-1797
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     This paper's purpose is to analyze the idea of “type“ as ideologies in the movement “Tendenza” on the two prominent theoretician of Tendenza movement, Aldo Rossi (1931-1997) and Giorgio Grassi . Rossi was regarded as the leader of the movement and Grassi was important theoretical position on their “Rationalism”. Analyzing is deeded through documents in 1959-74 of Grassi and Rossi on Modernism architectures.
     In Section 1, through the documents of Giorgio Grassi, it was shown that, in his view of Rationalism, geometry was associated as type. For example, Grassi emphasized the importance of Ludwig Hilberseimar, Le Corbisier, and Peter Behrens as architect in Rationalism, so that his idea of type was associated with tradition.
     In Section 2, the idea of type is analyzed in the view of connectons between Tendenza and ideogy. the Tendenza Movement has been blamed as “Fascist Architecture”, but the architects were strongly influenced by socialism and communism.
     In Section 3, through the documents of Aldo Rossi, it was shown that, in his view of Socialism, material was associated as type. For example, Rossi blamed the projects of superstructures and town plannings like Kenzo Tange, Metabolist and movement and Archigram as they ignored technological reality, Rossi noted that architectures cannot escape from a particular political stance and was interested in material in reality and technology of mass production.
     As the result, it was shown that, when the movement emerged in 1960-70s, idea of type was associated with the will to express image of architecture as their own ideologies. For the conclusion, while Grassi's collectivist principle led the idea of type as a graph and geometry, Rossi ‘s idea of types was strongly associated to production technology. For conclusion, Grassi discussed the Form of type, Rossi considered the Matter of type.
  • 通過儀礼と女性の関係を中心として
    上 なつき
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1799-1807
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     “Jin Ping Mei”, a novel completed during the late Ming Dynasty, revolves around the theme of sexual relations between the wealthy merchant Ximen Qing and his wives and mistresses. The story is set mainly on the limited stage of Ximen's jia or residence and describes the manners and customs of the time in great detail. For that reason, “Jin Ping Mei” has since been used as a historical and folkloric document that centers on the field of the necessities of life vis-à-vis life histories. In this paper, giving attention to the various locations of Ximen's jia from the point of view of residential history, I considered the formal significance of the women's actions at Ximen Qing's funeral and studied the influence that they exerted on the residence.
     First, if we analyze the layout of the mansion as well as the significance of each location, many interesting facts will come to light. In the Si-He-Yuan House, for instance, there were everyday spaces for women—centered around Shangfang, located north of Hou-Yimen (the “inner-facing” domain)—and spaces usually used by men—centered on Dating, located south of Hou-Yimen (the “outward-facing” domain). Supposing the above, an examination of the actions of the women at Ximen Qing's funeral is worthy, considering the social status of the deceased and the interest in the household among the public. The women's formal acts, the locations, and relationships in which they performed those acts have made this funeral an interesting subject for discussion.
     As Ximen Qing met his dying hour, he was clad in funeral clothing by his mistress in Shangfang and then brought to Datinng in the “outward-facing” domain. His mortal remains, placed in a coffin, were enshrined in Dating until just before the funeral procession. After the burial, the “Ling” of the deceased, who was called back by “Daotong, ” was sheltered in a mortuary tablet in Shangfang. Afterwards, the women made sure that the “Ling” entered Nirvana through the “Wuqi” ceremony. In other words, the women were responsible for ensuring his final departure to Nirvana in the “inner-facing” domain of them. That is to say, the women were principal actors in the commencement and completion of Ximen Qing's funeral, justifying the motivation of the study.
  • 場所のイメージ形成の枠組みに関する研究 その1
    香月 歩, 奥山 信一
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1809-1818
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     This paper aims to clarify the framework of the image of places in contemporary society through an analysis of words on sightseeing brochures of the towns which promote themselves as Koedo (little Edo). These towns attempt to enhance their historical value by borrowing the image of Edo, capital city of early modern Japan. Their historical image has transformed from the original image of Edo. Local governments and tourist offices of these towns have been publishing sightseeing brochures to express their historical attractions. Therefore the framework of their image can be read from these brochures.
     Firstly, the contents of historical attraction of each town was extracted into two aspects of words on sightseeing brochures; value objects and their history (Fig. 1, 2 and 3, Table 1 and 2). Hierarchical relations among value objects were considered to capture the whole historical value of each town, which are composed of all value objects in each sightseeing brochure. These relations were analyzed from the context and the appearance frequency of value objects in the text, we found 76 groups of hierarchically-linked value objects (value groups) (Fig. 4). We recognize the combination of value groups as the whole historical value of each town from words on the sightseeing brochure.
     Secondly, the characters of hierarchy of each value group were classified into following four categories according to the contents of value object which is on the top of hierarchy; whole of town type, space of town type, life in town type, and periphery of town type. Space of town type and life in town type were classified further into the following two categories; linear space type, spotted space type, and activity type, article type. As a result, it was linear space type that has largest number of all value groups and tends to have complex layer of hierarchy (Fig. 5, 6, 7 and 8).
     Finally, to capture the whole historical value of each town, the combination of value groups in each sightseeing brochure was considered (Table 3). It was divided into two types based on the number of value groups; {integrate type} and {dispersed type}. The former contains just one value group, and the latter contains several value groups. We found characteristic combinations of value groups in these types. {Dispersed type} tends to include space of town type, {integrate type} tends to contain the following three types equally; whole of town type, space of town type, and life in town type.
     Furthermore, 6 patterns were extracted from the combinations of value groups, and they were considered with the following five historical town types by the text of each town's history in each brochures; Shukuba-machi (post town), Jôka-machi (castle town), Shôka-machi (merchant town), Onsen-machi (hot-spring town), Minato-machi (port town) (Table 3). As a result, characteristic framework of the image of Koedo was examined relatively; towns which indicates their history as Shukuba-machi and Jôka-machi were more related to pattern I , II , III and IV , which express historical value of the town from single character of hierarchy, in contrast towns which do not express their history as Shukuba-machi or Jôka-machi were more related to pattern V and VI , which express historical value of the town from different characters of hierarchy. These results suggest that the framework of the image of the towns which promote themselves as Koedo has the following two aspects; the framework which individualize the image of Shukuba-machi or Jôka-machi, both of which are proper images of the town to the Edo period, and the framework which embodies the similarity between specific image of each town and the spatial or cultural image of Edo city.
  • -近世後期地割と伝馬役の関係性について-
    大野 謙三
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1819-1828
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     Sakamoto was a post-town located along the 700 m-long “Nakasendou” highway, on both sides of which were ribbon-like land divisions. In the “Jibikiezu”, the total number of building-lots is 160.
     This paper concerns about the land division of the post-town Sakamoto, which influenced its townscape since its creation. This study was carried out with a focus on the relationships between land division and the social system of post-towns in the Edo era.
     At the first stage, we studied the land division, then compared and analyzed the “Jibikiezu” (a map made during the revision of the tax system at the beginning of the Meiji era) and the seven-sheet “Syukuezu” (a map made in the Edo era , which shows the land division of the post-town). We then clarified the post-town social system, by analyzing the “Meisaikakiagetyou”, “Shogoyoudometyo”and others documents related to the Edo post-town system. Lastly we studied the relationships between land division and the post-town social system in the Edo era.

     In the “Jibikiezu”, the total number of building-lots is 160, and seven types of land area are described. The “Jibikiezu” and “Syukuezu” make it clear that the numbers of divisions and unifications of building-lots ranged from one to six. In the three sheets of the “Syukuezu” that are thought to have been made relatively earlier, there are only five types of building-lots.
     According to the “Meisaikakiagetyou”, written in 1852, the main widths of building-lots were 7-ken and 3.5-ken (see note), and the width of “Tonnya” building-lots was 14-ken. In the three sheets of “Syukuezu” mentioned previously, the widths of building-lots are 3.5-ken, 7-ken, 14-ken and two other types. All other maps show that the 3.5-ken module was used for the width of building-lots.
     Three basic types of building-lot are described in the “Jibikiezu” and “Syukuezu”. When we analyzed the “Jibikiezu” and “Syukuezu”, we found that the total number of building-lots was between 160 and 161, and 153 to 155 of these were of the three basic types. The widths 3.5-ken and 7-ken could be considered “nominal widths”. However, the “Jibikiezu” shows that all of the building-lots of each type were of the same width.
     Next we widened our view from just building-lots to building-lots and fields; the 7-ken module was common for the widths of building-lots and fields. We examined the relationships between the land area of fields and the land area of building-lots, owned by the same person. We concluded that there was a standard that ensured the land area of fields was in proportion to the land area of building-lots.
     Every post-town along the main highway was assigned a certain function by the Edo Shogunate. Among them, the most important were “Tenmayaku”, which were the duties of the town member. These were divided into two groups: “horse-duties” and “personnel duties”. There was also a system for the post-town officials; “Tonnya” was the highest-ranked official of the post-town.
     In the late Edo era, the three basic widths of building-lots corresponded to “Tenmayaku” and “Tonnya”. 3.5-ken corresponded to “personnel duties”, 7-ken to “horse-duties”, and 14-ken to “Tonnya”. The width of building-lots was the standards of the possession of fields and the town expenditure for the members of the post-town. This paper shows variable examples between land division and the social system of post-towns in the Edo era.

     Note: A “ken” was a unit of length in Japan before westernization, equal to approximately about 182 cm.
  • 延 圭 憲 , 伊藤 裕久
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1829-1838
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     The subject place selected in this study is "Juk-Dong 竹 洞". Along with the opening of the port in 1987, Juk-Dong is constructed by moving existing tombs and residents of the natives were forced into moving to the outside of the Mokpo foreign settlement area. The area received wasteland by the close north part of the foreign settlement boundary from the Korean government. However, the areas of Juk-Dong was formed the characteristic is that the difference of high and low terrains and the spatial structure that was formed according to the irregular natural terrain. Setting Juk-Dong as the base, a new "Hanin-Chon" was formed.

     As a result of analyzing with the attached map of Korea Official document [Muan-Bochob 務 安 報 牒] and "cadastral maps", "cadastre" of 1912, the following matters related to the transition process of the residential land division, landholding and land use to Koreans and Japanese living in Juk-Dong from 1906 to 1945 were identified.
     During the opening of the port in 1897, Korean Government Employment Mr. Star-Den found out about the execution of a road maintenance plan outside the foreign settlement by measuring all the parts of the existing road. But, The road maintenance plan of the existing Muan Road was not executed. Instead, execute in prior by starting maintenance of east coastal shore as "Muantong-Dearo 務安通大路".

     In the "Houses Map" of 1906 which is the attachment of [Muan-Bochob] has the name of the architect and the name of the owner along with the road name. As a result of analyzing the map, a total of 184 houses was grasped. From there, when looking at only the houses inside Juk-Dong, total of 176 houses were identified. The names of the owners of the houses were mostly Korean people. Seven Japanese people possessed 14 houses and they were distributed centering the lowland based on the old Muan road or Muantong road. Also, one korean possessed 4 houses based on the Muantong road, there were two korean house owners that possessed 2 houses each. Due to this point, Japanese and korean at the time used house as the owner giving out rent.

     As a result of analyzing the "cadastral maps" and "cadastre" composed in 1912, most of the land where Korean houses were located at the time of 1906 were changed to the possession of Japanese people. During this period, townscape was formed for the tiled roof Japanese-style houses group in the south zone of Juk-Dong in close proximity to the foreign settlement and the small thatched roof Korean houses(Hanok) group on the hill of the north and west area.

     In the transformation of 1914 "Mokpo-hu 木 浦 府" established after landholding subdivision of residential land by the lots division was progress. Also, that the transfer of landowners has been frequently performed was a feature. While in the Taisho period, the Japanese and Korean commercials land management or land accumulated were many appeared which even short-term land owners to reselling the land for speculative purposes. And, it's considered land division was also progress with residential land development. In the Showa period, it affected the subdivision of land to the road improvement plan of the Mokpo-hu. On the other hand, with the population growth of "Hanin-Chon", further subdivision of land was progressing in 1912 to 1945. While the Korean absentee landlords of the land accumulate increased, but the Japanese landowners were decreased. The reason seems to had interested of the Mokpo Station surrounding area, development of changed target area for the land management and a new residential land.
  • 龍門 達夫
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1839-1849
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     Some traditional houses roofs in Sawara Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings in Chiba prefecture have been damaged by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake.
     This research investigated the roof damage condition of the traditional houses by visual judgment. Through the analysis of the roof damage conditions it is clarified the follow reason.
     In Sawara, which is located along Onogawa river, by the geological investigation , it is cleared that at the upstream is hard soil and at the downstream is soft soil.
     To the downstream from midstream by its influence, I made clear that the damage is concentrated.
     In Sawara, the save repair works has been done about 70%. However the seismic intensity was measured * 5.1, and the maximum acceleration was measured 300gal. In this impact, about 50% of the traditional townhouses, about 80 percent of the kura storehouses were damaged the roof.
     But in spite of Sawara that was located in the soft ground, The traditional buildings that were taken the flat concrete basement method and the guidelines method of roof tiles, were not damaged the roofs.
     In spite of were constructed roof replacement and reinforced frames, the kura storehouses were damaged the roofs.
     It is clear that there is a problem with the roof of soil roofing.
     It is considered that the roof of soil roofing should be made reference to the effective dry construction method to prevent damage.
  • -東日本大震災後の全国の市区町村調査から-
    乾 康代
    2016 年 81 巻 726 号 p. 1851-1858
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
     In This study examines the aid given by local governments that received evacuees due to the Great East Japan Earthquake and the nuclear power plant accident. The main results are as follows.
     1. In Ibaraki Prefecture, Kenpoku, the cities of the northern region of Ibaraki and Rokko, the southeast region of Ibaraki were the areas where radioactive contamination and residential damage in large amounts were found. In response to this level of damage, the greatest number of citizens evacuated outside the prefecture were from Kenpoku region, to the extent the local governments grasped the situation.
     2. According to local governments in Ibaraki Prefecture, the grasp rate of citizens evacuating to outside the prefecture was markedly lower than that of citizens evacuating from Fukushima Prefecture to Ibaraki Prefecture. This indicates that the number of evacuees from Ibaraki Prefecture who registered with the National Refugee Information System was extremely low. The reason is that overwhelming majority of citizens evacuating from Ibaraki Prefecture were regarded voluntary refugees, and these individuals saw no reason to register.
     3. Between 60 and 70 percent of local governments nationwide gave aid broadly to refugees outside the prefecture without requiring them to be victims of residential damage or to be from towns or villages where the Disaster Relief Law has been applied.
     4. Regarding those who evacuated voluntarily, the overall rate of those being aided by local governments nationwide was clearly lower than those evacuating to outside their home prefecture, but among local governments 60% didn't distinguish between the two groups, and 25% established individual requirements for aid.
     5. The disparity in aid between refugees to outside the prefecture and voluntary refugees varied by individual, but residential aid differences were relatively small, only slightly above 10 points. This is due, as indicated above, to the fact that a little over 60% of local governments nationwide made no distinction between the two groups in their aid requirements, and also can be seen to reflect that the number of local governments responding with individual measures is high.
     6. The number of local governments nationwide with individual support measures engaged in livelihood support for refugees was 20%.
     Based on these results, a number of suggestions was made.
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