2011 年 47 巻 1 号 p. 35-40
This paper studies the conservation policy of the Tongass National Forest (TNF; established in 1907) during the 1990s.
TNF is unique in its extensiveness (6.75 million ha) and peculiar temperate rain forest with its animal life. While preservationists insist on strict limitations on the development of the forest, conservationists assert that the most should be made of the forest to stabilize the local economy.
This study clarified the following two points.
First, the Tongass Timber Reform Act of 1990 extended preservation areas.
Second, the international timber market underwent a structural change, and timber export to Japan from TNF sharply decreased in the 1990s. Further, in 1992, the Forest Service introduced “ecosystem management" during the drawing up of the Tongass Forest Plan of 1997. Thus, the Forest Service reinforced the preservation policy and timber cutting decreased.
Owing to the above, more temperate rain forest was preserved. However, it also resulted in about 3,000 dismissals in Southeast Alaska.