This paper aims to describe the development and features of agriculture 4.0, or the fourth revolution applicable to this sector, in Germany. The concept was introduced by an institute, Leibniz-Forschungsverbund, based on industry 4.0. However, the concept remains multivocal and changing. The viewpoint of value chain played an important role in the initial concept of agriculture 4.0. However, it has not been emphasized in later discussions. Focus of the concept has moved to production process because of difficulty to establish M2M or machine-to-machine technology in agriculture that is a required condition for making the value chain flexible. The other typical feature of agriculture 4.0 is to take environmental conservation into consideration. The technology of agriculture 4.0 is also being applied to agricultural environmental programs.
Soil erosion, often referred to as “red soil erosion,” has been considered as a major environmental issue in Ishigaki Island. It affects not only sugarcane farming, but also the degradation of fisheries, coastal ecosystems, and coral reefs, eventually leading to economic loss in tourism. This study sheds light on the management strategy of sediment retention ponds as many of them remain unmanaged and filled with sediments, gradually degrading coastal fisheries and ecosystems. An economic model was developed to illustrate how sediment retention ponds are sustainably managed under alternative scenarios. This study suggests that frequent dredging in sediment retention ponds is required to reduce the management and environmental costs. It also focuses on the effective use of dredged sediment and community-led management.
The use of IT is one of the most important strategies for the future of agriculture. In Yabu City in Hyogo prefecture, not many, but some private farmers are interested in it. We analyze the determinants of IT use and willingness of farmers to pay for IT in agricultural management, using the farm household data of Yabu City. Our empirical results based on ordered probit and Tobit models find that the number of days engaged in agriculture, intention of machine renewal, having PCs, smartphones, and mobile phones, and agricultural income have positive correlations and older age has negative correlations with IT use and willingness to pay for IT. Farmers who know what companies of the National Strategic Special Zone in Yabu City do are willing to spend more money on IT. Moreover, a sense of fulfillment with agriculture increases IT use and willingness to pay for IT. However, feeling worth living does not do significantly.
In Cambodia, manufacturing is the leading sector, and the garment and shoe industries are particularly important as they continue to expand. Nowadays, they operate not just around Phnom Penh, the capital city, but also in the provinces. Newly built factories create non-agricultural job opportunities for people in rural areas, which may affect their income and/or lifestyle. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of building and operating garment factories near rural villages on household well-being in Cambodia. The estimation results of a panel data analysis revealed that the existence of a garment factory is positively associated with work opportunities for women in the non-agricultural sector and the health status of household members. However, factory operation is likely to have an adverse effect on girls’ education.
This study focuses on characteristics of business networks in rural community businesses (CBs) in hilly and mountainous areas. We analyze the sweet potato community business in Iinan-cho, Shimane Prefecture, as a case study. Our key results are as follows: (1) The CB main company focuses on the promotion of production with stakeholders (SHs), such as building a system that allows rural employees to work throughout the year. (2) It expands business by securing new SHs from the existing network and its management resources. (3) Rural leaders play a central role in building business networks. In CBs in hilly and mountainous areas, it is important to have a mechanism that maximizes rural leaders’ abilities.
Food banks attract growing concern as a countermeasure to tackle food loss and deepening poverty issues among urban children. However, full scale research is still scarce. Thus, this study investigated operators’ satisfaction and its determinant factors using a nationwide web-based questionnaire survey. We received 60 responses and employed a binary logit model and co-occurrence network analysis. The results revealed that those with stable food suppliers and partnerships with local municipalities, and located in east Japan had higher satisfaction levels. Meanwhile, those providing food to individuals had lower satisfaction as doing so required more time and labor. Further, many food banks face financial difficulties because most are non-profit organizations (NPOs) with weak financial bases. Thus, securing partnerships with the public sector will be necessary.
Temporal direct-selling shops in urban areas called “marchés” are drawing attention as a connecting place between urban consumers and producers in rural areas. However, little has been studied on sellers’ satisfaction, which is a crucial factor for the sustainability of the activity. Thus, this study investigated sellers’ satisfaction and identified the factors affecting their satisfaction by focusing on marchés in Tokyo. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey of sellers in “Taiyou no marché” held once a month in Kachidoki; 43 sellers responded. A binary logit model was employed to identify the factors that influence the sellers’ satisfaction. The results revealed that those who have regular customers, engagement with multiple persons, and higher academic background had higher satisfaction than those do not. Thus, marché organizers should consider these points for the sustainable management of marchés.
This study aims to investigate the factors and structures of migrant entrepreneurship clusters and migration in Fukusumi district in Tambasasayama City, Hyogo Prefecture. Currently, an increasing number of people living in urban areas are interested in moving to rural areas. A lot of research has been conducted on entrepreneurship and settlement in these places. However, most of the studies are based on the large-scale industry accumulation and development. Additionally, not many studies have been conducted on comparatively small entrepreneurship in rural areas. Thus, this study investigates the case of Fukusumi, where many rural entrepreneurial activities take place. In addition, Fukusumi has one of the leading rural entrepreneurial clusters. Interview surveys were conducted in order to clarify the structure of ecosystem in Fukusumi. It was found that the people connection network is constructed, encouraging the matching of resources with migrant entrepreneurs.