In the paddy region, it is an important to develop contractors to increase roughage production. This paper examines the conditions of contractor by simulation of contractor model under the following four limitations: 1) Contractor does not select dent corn and sorghum due to poor drainage; 2) Contractor must manage agricultural management entity privately; 3) Contractor must harvest foraged rice to support change of crops for rice farmers; 4) Harvest or gathering operation must use roll baler. Our contractor model is built by linear programming. Some meaningful results have been found in this work. Firstly, the contractor needs to forage rice, straw, and grass for harvest activity to ensure profit and to maintain permanent hired workers. Secondly, sales price of forage rice should be maintained to avoid competition with straw gathering activity. Thirdly, in case the operating efficiency of harvesting is low, it is important to ensure profit to maintain straw gathering period long term. If rice farmers hope to develop contractors, they should delay tilling paddy fields until after harvest of rice.
Environmental degradation has become a serious problem in China under the rapid economic development process. Especially, water pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems. The Agriculture Non-point Source Pollution is currently the biggest cause of water contamination in China. It is said that more than 40% of the water pollutants has been derived from agricultural production activities. In this paper, the Tai Hu lake basin is selected as a field survey area. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the situation and background of Agriculture Non-Point Source Pollution on that area, and to discuss the agricultural policy that the government should take into account in order to prevent this kind of pollution. We conducted a questionary survey to 800 farm households in 40 villages located in 5 cities of Tai Hu lake basin. By applying Choice experiment method, the agricultural policies such as fertilizer application, technical production guidance, low interest financing, and direct payment of subsidies by the government (which promotes changes in agricultural methods) seem to be effective methods to prevent Agriculture Non-point Source Pollution. Finally, future agricultural policy and the promotion of environmental friendly agriculture are discussed.
This paper aims to empirically examine the impact that unexpected shocks suffered by households have on child growth in rural Cambodia, considering the role of informal risk pooling and social networks. In 2007 and 2009, we had conducted a household survey in rural Cambodia, and we measured child growth by height within the two years. We find that in rural Cambodia, unexpected shocks have a significant impact on child growth. However, once households use the risk pooling system, this impact will disappear. The existence of social networks plays no significant role in child growth in our study.
This paper studies the conservation policy of the Tongass National Forest (TNF; established in 1907) during the 1990s. TNF is unique in its extensiveness (6.75 million ha) and peculiar temperate rain forest with its animal life. While preservationists insist on strict limitations on the development of the forest, conservationists assert that the most should be made of the forest to stabilize the local economy. This study clarified the following two points. First, the Tongass Timber Reform Act of 1990 extended preservation areas. Second, the international timber market underwent a structural change, and timber export to Japan from TNF sharply decreased in the 1990s. Further, in 1992, the Forest Service introduced “ecosystem management" during the drawing up of the Tongass Forest Plan of 1997. Thus, the Forest Service reinforced the preservation policy and timber cutting decreased. Owing to the above, more temperate rain forest was preserved. However, it also resulted in about 3,000 dismissals in Southeast Alaska.
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the regional economic ripple effects triggered by the consumption of products manufactured by the urban-rural interchange industries in Tsuyama city through an input-output analysis and to evaluate the urban-rural interchange industries and centered region development scenario. In this paper, I also will explain the methods involved in creating a regional input-output table reflecting the urban-rural interchange sectors. In conclusion, the economic ripple effect caused by the processing and sale of local specialty products by rural public corporations was found to be the most effective measure in the case of each scenario.
Rural areas are facing serious problems of aging and depopulation, and universities are expected to play an active role in supporting and activating these areas. This study explores the roles and achievements of four university satellites in rural areas. By conducting interviews on (1) the process of their foundations, (2) their activities, (3) their management systems, (4) their achievements and challenges, and (5) the roles of their resident officers, the reliability, interactivity, and ripple effects of the satellites are analyzed. To enable and maintain regional partnerships, support systems from local governments, network platforms, local organizations, and universities are needed. In rural areas, university satellites provide reliability through resident officers, interactivity through educational projects, and ripple effects through lifelong education, all of which are directly related to regional needs.
This paper aims to investigate the bases for the existing cooperation in the field of agricultural activities among the Northeastern Asian economies comprising Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. The main results are as follows: the first cooperation basis stems from the fact that all the four abovementioned economies are located in the Asian monsoon area, and thus have a similar agricultural structure that is based on rice plantation. The second basis is the economic features of a high income economy and pure food import. Currently, only China does not fulfill this condition. The possibility that China will fulfill it after becoming an advanced economy is not unlikely. The last basis is the intimate food network operating among the above economies, which has shown steady increase over the last two decades. The issue of food security, including production process monitoring, that emerged in 2008 regarding food exported from China has also been a factor that has strengthened the food network.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the change in meat supply after the Russo-Japanese War. The war resulted in the shortage of cattle and increase in its price. The shortage suggests that the limitation of meat supply depended on the existence of cattle not only for meat but also (and mainly) for farming. The solution was found in importing meat from Australia and cattle from the Korean peninsula and supplementing the lack of beef with pork. The import of meat from Australia failed because of the immaturity of refrigerating and freezing tecniques. The import of cattle from the Korean peninsula involved the problem of rinderpest, but it did have two advantages. The first was the high evaluation that these cattle received as farming cattle. The second was that the quality of meat improved during the period they were kept as farming cattle.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the requisition and supplementation of farming horses was carried out in wartime Japan. Through the analysis, this study makes clear the following two points. 1)The requisition of farming horses caused problems mainly in horse-using areas, such as Kanto, Hokuriku, and Tosan. In these areas, a large number of farming horses were required, and the short of horses resulted in an increase in the price. The famers were therefore obliged to substitute colts, old horses, and even cattle for horses. 2)In the summer of 1937, two methods were used to obtain substitute horses. The first was to purchase colts in cooperation, which was supported by government subsidies. The second was to purchase aged horses through livestock merchants. Farmers had to pay more money for the latter and did not know when to expect delivery.
In the USA, farm and forest land ownership by aliens must be reported to the federal government. In some states, the restrictions are stricter than in others. By analyzing the code of each state, this study reveals that these states control aliens’ land ownership by limiting their acreage, confining the eligibility of business entities, or checking the citizenship of landowners and that some states prohibit the ownership of public land by aliens. Therefore, most of the farmland in the Midwest and the western states is protected from alien ownership. In the USA, land ownership by aliens is observed mainly on forest land.In order to achieve the proper use of farm and forest land, Japan should replicate the US land management system that controls alien land ownership. One important implication is that farm and forest land should be controlled integrally, not separately.
Biodiversity-friendly farming is an innovative practice that is adopted by not only individual farmers but also rural communities as a whole. The objectives of this paper are to outline the diffusion process of the biodiversity-friendly farming adopted by rural communities, which is accompanied by collective decision-making, and to reveal which attributes of the rural community influence the adoption level of the farm ing. To this end, a case in a Japanese rural region was studied. The study concluded that the adoption level of biodiversity-friendly farming in rural communities is promoted by higher ratio of middle-aged population, higher degree of social capital accumulation through community meetings, a greater number of neighboring rural communities adopting the farming, and the sale of rice as a branded commodity.
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been established with the aim of conserving coral reefs and other marine habitats through the prohibition of fishing. Their establishment has brought about the following benefits: (1) the induction of the spill-over effect, increasing the fish stocks of adjacent coastal waters, (2) the creation of recreational resources, and (3) the maintenance of the ecosystem’s biodiversity. An MPA is similar to commons as a common-pool resource (CPR) management institution, i. e., both schemes intend to control natural resources for their sustainable use. The governance of commons requires three categories of cost for (A) enforcing the rule of utilizing natural resource and excluding violators in a certain area, (B) maintaining natural resources, and (C) organizing CPR institution. Managing MPAs requires similar costs. We adopted the above framework for analyzing the SMI MPA. We focused on the activities of the Sea Guard and Cost (A), analyzed the activities of Bicol University, associated with Cost (C), and evaluated the benefits of MPA in monetary terms. In conclusion, we found that the benefits exceed the costs.
Nowadays, rice production for feeds is increasing in Shiga prefecture. Rice production for feeds makes efficient use of paddy fields. However, such rice farms do not make more profit than those that produce rice for staple food. Eggs produced with rice feed are supplied the members by Coop-Shiga. However, their purchase behavior tends to differ by age and membership history. The members who want to use these eggs do not mind its method of production whether fed rice or not. Moreover they have already used it before feeding rice. The use of rice for feeds is not recognized by members. This is because Coop-Shiga does not state its egg’s concepts clearly. Coop-Shiga has to make its concept clear and carry out promotion activities to get new users.
In Japan, the production and demand for barley have diminished since the 1950s. While in 1960, the consumption of barley per capita was 8.1 kg, in 2007, it decreased to only 300 g. This paper examines how promotion can spur the demand for barley. We suggested that sampling would spur the demand for barley. Therefore, in November 2009, we asked visitors at a farmers’ market in a mountainous and hilly area of the Chugoku Region to try out a sample of barley with rice at home and answer a questionnaire. From the results, we clarified the following three points. First, sampling can lead most consumers to eat barley more. Second, an analysis of consumers’ acceptable price showed that the selling price of barley could be increased. Third, information for improving the image of barley could raise the consumers’ acceptable price for barley.
An analysis of a case study involving village H in Heilongjiang Province produced the following results with regard to the liquidization of the farmlands located in the minority Korean farming villages and diversification in the scale of agricultural activities. First, in a labor market where employment opportunities are scarce, restrictions on ethnic Korean citizens regarding travel to Korea have been loosened, leading to a surge in ethnic Korean migrant laborers. This has brought about an increase in the lending of land usage rights. On the other hand, in neighboring village T, where each household administers only a small plot of land, there are numerous farming households harboring a latent desire to expand the scale of their activities by renting out land. These borrowing and lending activities have encouraged the liquidization of the farmlands located in villages, leading numerous ethnic Korean farmers to vacate their land and creating upper-class farming households.
This paper constructed a job selection model of principal earners in farm households by agricultural regions. Principal earners here are defined as farm household heads in the productive-age population, and the farms living heavily on the land-intensive crop sectors are surveyed. The model is designed to evaluate the effect of farm subsidies, and a binary logit model is applied. The Findings are as follows: 1)The area of farmland, two kinds of farm subsi dies (price support policy and structural policy), and the wage system of off-farm jobs influence the job selection with different effects. 2)The degree of the influence differs by region. 3)The above findings imply that it is important to consider the characteristics of subsidies, impact on job selection, and regional differences when discussing agricultural policies.
In the sake brewery in Hyogo Prefecture of the Meiji era, obtaining good quality brewer’s rice was a problem. The farmer wanted to secure a steady purchaser. This wish corresponded with that of the sake brewery. This is how the Muramai system started. It is a supply chain that connects the sake brewery (commerce and industry) and the farmer (agriculture). This report analyzes the Muramai system and aims to clarify the key factors for successful supply chain management to ensure long-term cooperation between agriculture and commerce and industry. To understand the Muramai system, the sake brewery and farmer are interviewed and the continuing factor is extracted. Then, the generalizable key factors for successful chain management are identified to ensure long-term cooperation between agriculture and commerce and industry.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the introduction effect and conditions of the 2 Year-3 crop rotation system (rice-barley-soybean) implemented by using a new seeding technology in mountainous areas. There are certain problems due to which agricultural operations cannot be finished on schedule in and around the rainy season in these areas. However, the new seeding machine system can help reduce the time period of some operations. Therefore, it can help the management introduce the 2 Year-3 crop rotation system. The second problem is that certain conditions regarding the farmlands in mountainous areas can lead to barley and soybean crops being unprofitable. Therefore, this paper simulates the profit with regard to each farmland condition and crop after the introduction of the abovementioned crop rotation system in a state comprising damp soil to clarify the introduction effect and conditions of the same.
In this study, we investigated the determinant factors of the comparative advantage of canned tuna by applying panel data analysis on a large sample of countries worldwide for the period 1993 to 2006. Our study showed that in developing countries, there are positive significant relationships between the comparative advantage of canned tuna and various socio-economic factors (per capita GDP, employment to population ratio, and so on) and country-specific characteristics like government policies. The results imply that in the long run, the comparative advantage of canned tuna will increase in developing countries, accompanied by social infrastructure and institutional arrangements; however, it will depend on countryspecific factors such as industrial policy.
In this paper, the relationship between the entry of enterprises into agriculture and regional agriculture is examined from a case in Goto city, Nagasaki Prefecture. In this case, the enterprise initially developed its own farming and contract farming schemes. However, later, most contract farmers stopped participating in contract farming and started joint sales under agricultural cooperatives. One of the reasons for this secession is that the enterprise depended on the existing organization and facilities in the area, such as the agricultural cooperatives, for distribution facilities and technical advice. Therefore, the enterprise could not be in control of regional agriculture. This case indicates that a strong enterprise cannot always control regional agriculture and that regional agriculture can make use of the entry of enterprises for its development.
The purpose of this paper is to measure Korea’s rice productivity change reflecting the returns to scale of the production structure for a sample of eight provinces in Korea over the period 1994-2006. We calculate the input-based productivity (IBP) index and output-based productivity (OBP) index. The results suggest that Korea’s rice productivity has stagnated.
The food markets of Islamic countries appear attractive because of their rapid economic development. However, it is not easy for food companies from non-Islamic countries to penetrate the market because Islamic countries have a Halal system based on religion, which controls trade, distribution, and production of nonstandard foods. This research studies the case of the Malaysian Halal system to determine whether this system is a barrier to inter national food trade. It discusses the system in terms of the Agreement on Technological Barriers to Trade (TBT) under the WTO regime. It finds that although the Halal system is legally not a barrier to food trade according to the TBT, it places a burden on food exporters from non-Islamic countries. This implies that the best way for food companies to penetrate the Islamic market is to invest in the country rather than to export to it.