Recently, gut-dwelling bifidobacteria from chimpanzees, which are phylogenetically close to humans and have feeding habits similar to humans, have been frequently investigated. Given this, we speculated that like humans, chimpanzees would have a unique diversity of bifidobacteria. We herein describe a taxonomically novel member of bifidobacteria isolated from fecal samples of captive chimpanzees. Bifidobacteria were detected in all fecal samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A Bifidobacterium pseudolongum-like species, which could not be detected using B. pseudolongum-specific primers targeting the groEL gene sequence, was dominant in the feces of five chimpanzees. Seven bifidobacterial strains were isolated from this group of five chimpanzees, and all isolates were identified as B. pseudolongum. B. pseudolongum has previously often been isolated from non-primate animals as well as humans; however, here we demonstrate its presence in a nonhuman primate species.