Royal jelly (RJ) is known to contain excellent nutrition and a variety of biological activities. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of RJ on insulin resistance (hyperinsulinemia) in fructose-drinking rats (FDR; insulin resistance animal model). Male Wistar rats (6 weeks old) received 15% fructose solution in drinking water for 8 weeks. FDR showed significant increases in plasma levels of insulin and triglyceride, Homeostasis Model Assessment ratio (HOMA-R, an index of insulin resistance), and systolic blood pressure, but not blood glucose levels, when compared with control rats. RJ (100, 300 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment for 8 weeks significantly decreased the plasma levels of insulin and triglyceride, HOMA-R, without affecting blood glucose or total cholesterol levels and tended to lower systolic blood pressure. In isolated and perfused mesenteric vascular beds of FDR, RJ treatment resulted in a significant reduction in sympathetic nerve-mediated vasoconstrictor response to periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS) and tended to increase the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) nerve-mediated vasodilator response to PNS, compared with those in untreated FDR. However, RJ treatment did not significantly affect norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction or CGRP-induced vasodilation. These results suggest that RJ could be an effective functional food to prevent insulin resistance associated with the development of hypertension.