2017 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 815-823
The trans platinum–chloroquine diphosphate dichloride (PtCQ) is a new type of antimalarial drug used to fight parasites resistant to traditional drugs. PtCQ is synthesized by mixing platinum and chloroquine diphosphate (CQ). This study examines two efficient methods for forming a nanodrug, PtCQ-loaded liposomes, for use as a potential antimalarial drug-delivery system: the thin drug–lipid film method to incorporate the drug into a liposomal membrane, and a remote-loading method to load the drug into the interior of a cationic liposome. The membranes accordingly comprised PEGylated neutral or cationic liposomes. PtCQ was efficiently loaded into PEGylated neutral and cationic liposomes using the thin drug–lipid film method (encapsulation efficiency, EE: 76.1±6.7% for neutral liposomes, 1 : 14 drug-to-lipid weight ratio; 70.4±9.8% for cationic liposomes, 1 : 14 drug-to-lipid weight ratio). More PtCQ was loaded into PEGylated neutral liposomes using the remote-loading method than by the thin drug–lipid film method and the EE was maximum (96.1±4.5% for neutral liposomes, 1 : 7 (w/w)). PtCQ was encapsulated in PEGylated cationic liposomes comprising various amounts of cationic lipids (0–20 mol%; EE: 96.9–92.3%) using the remote-loading method. PEGylated neutral liposomes and cationic liposomes exhibited minimum leakage of PtCQ after two months’ storage at 4°C, and further exhibited little release under in vitro culture conditions at 37°C for 72 h. These results provide a useful framework for the design of future liposome-based in vivo drug delivery systems targeting the malaria parasite.