2020 Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages 697-706
5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is used as first line therapy for symptom remission and maintenance of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Because 5-ASA is well absorbed from the small intestine when orally administered, several 5-ASA formulations for selective delivery to the colon have been developed and used in clinical practice. However, its delivery efficiency to local inflamed colonic sites remains low. Intestinal H+-coupled oligopeptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) expression in the colon is low, whereas its expression is induced in the colon under chronic inflammation conditions, such as IBD. Therefore, we considered that PEPT1 would be a target transporter to improve 5-ASA delivery efficiency to local colonic lesions. We evaluated the transport characteristics of dipeptide-like 5-ASA derivatives, which were coupling glycine (Gly), lysine, glutamic acid (Glu), valine (Val) and tyrosine to amino or carboxyl group of 5-ASA, in Caco-2 cells. [3H]Glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar) uptake into Caco-2 cells was inhibited by all 5-ASA derivatives. In addition, 5-ASA derivatives (Gly-ASA, Glu-ASA and Val-ASA), which were coupled by glycine, glutamic acid and valine to amino group of 5-ASA, were taken up in a pH- and concentration-dependent manner and their uptake was inhibited by excess Gly-Sar. Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiment using human PEPT1 expressing Xenopus oocytes showed that Gly-ASA, Glu-ASA and Val-ASA induced marked currents at pH 6.0. Taken together, these results showed that these 5-ASA derivatives are transportable substrates for PEPT1.