Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Online ISSN : 1347-5215
Print ISSN : 0918-6158
ISSN-L : 0918-6158
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Association of Hypnotic Drug Use with Fall Incidents in Hospitalized Elderly Patients: A Case-Crossover Study
Haruki ToriiMotozumi AndoHideaki TomitaTomoko KobaruMahoko TanakaKazuhide FujimotoRumiko ShimizuHiroaki IkesueSatoshi OkusadaTohru HashidaNoriaki Kume
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2020 Volume 43 Issue 6 Pages 925-931


We investigated whether use of hypnotic drugs, including benzodiazepine receptor agonists, as well as ramelteon and suvorexant are associated with fall incidents in elderly inpatients aged no less than 75 years, who were hospitalized at an acute care general hospital in Japan, between November 1st, 2016 and October 31st, 2017. Multivariate analysis results were reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Following to a case-crossover study protocol, the time windows of the case and the control days were assigned to the day or the days, which are one day or 2–8 d before the fall incidents, respectively. In the enrolled 111 patients, the accumulated total available numbers of the cases and the control days were 111 and 554 patient days, respectively. Hypnotic drug use was significantly associated with fall incidents (OR: 2.85, 95% CI: 1.03–7.90, p = 0.04). Especially benzodiazepine receptor agonists (OR: 5.79, 95% CI: 1.52–22.1, p = 0.01) showed statistically significant association with fall incidents. In contrast, neither ramelteon (OR: 7.95, 95% CI: 0.72–87.9, p = 0.09) nor suvorexant (OR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.06–1.06, p = 0.06) were significantly associated with fall incidents. Thus, benzodiazepine receptor agonists, but not ramelteon or suvorexant, showed significant association with fall incidents. Therefore, special care should be taken especially when benzodiazepine receptor agonists are administrated to elderly subjects. In contrast, fall risk may be much less in patients treated with ramelteon or suvorexant. These results could help us to conduct safer drug treatment for insomnia patients aged no less than 75 years.

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© 2020 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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