2022 Volume 45 Issue 12 Pages 1754-1763
Pentazocine (PTZ) is a widely used drug for postoperative pain. It should be administered at appropriate dosing intervals not only because of its morphine-like side effects but also because frequent inappropriate dosing can lead to dependence. Although perioperative patients reportedly have nonnegligible effects on placebo drugs and postoperative wound healing, no pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) model has been established and simulated using real-world data for the perioperative period. This study aimed to perform PTZ modeling and simulation and to establish an indicator of the timing of drug efficacy evaluation in clinical practice. Participants were in-hospital orthopedic surgery patients who received 15 mg of PTZ within 48 h postoperatively. Pain severity was assessed using the numerical rating scale (NRS). A two-compartment model was selected for the population PK model and an indirect response model for the PK/PD model. Using these models, a virtual population of 1000 patients with Painbase NRS of 5 and 6 and body weights of 40, 80, and 120 kg were treated with single and multiple PTZ administrations (4, 8, and 24 h apart) of 15 mg. Simulation results indicate that its analgesic efficacy should be evaluated within 1 h after administration of 15 mg of PTZ. Additional doses should be considered every 8–12 h in postoperative patients with Painbase NRS of 5 weighing 40–80 kg. Simulation using the PK/PD model developed in this study may provide useful information for determining the analgesic effects and timing of the dosing interval after PTZ administration in perioperative patients.