2022 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 684-690
Since the discovery of β-arrestin, a new concept/viewpoint has arisen in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signaling. The Lock and Key concept of GPCR was previously recognized as basically a single- or mono-originated pathway activated from a single receptor. However, the new concept/viewpoint allows for many- or more-than-one-originated pathways activated from a single receptor; namely, biased activities. It is well-recognized that prostanoids exhibit preferences for their corresponding cognate receptors, while promiscuous cross-reactivities have also been reported among endogenous prostanoids and their receptor family. However, of particular interest, such cross-reactivities have led to reports of their physiologically significant roles. Thus, this review discusses and considers that the endogenous prostanoids are not showing random cross-reactivities but what are showing important physiological and pathological activities as biased ligands. Moreover, why and how the biased activities are evoked by endogenous structurally similar prostanoid ligands are discussed. Furthermore, when the biased activities of endogenous prostanoids first arose is also discussed and considered. These biased activities of endogenous prostanoids are also discussed from the perspective that they may provide many benefits and/or disadvantages for all living things, any-where on this planet, who/which are utilizing, had utilized, and will utilize the prostanoids and their receptor system, as a marked driving force for evolution.