Circulation Journal
Online ISSN : 1347-4820
Print ISSN : 1346-9843
ISSN-L : 1346-9843
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Unveiling Specific Triggers and Precipitating Factors for Fatal Cardiac Events in Inherited Arrhythmia Syndromes
Tadashi NakajimaYoshiaki KanekoMasahiko Kurabayashi
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2015 Volume 79 Issue 6 Pages 1185-1192

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Abstract

Patients with inherited arrhythmia syndromes, such as long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, early repolarization syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and their latent forms, are at risk for fatal arrhythmias. These diseases are typically associated with genetic mutations that perturb cardiac ionic currents. The analysis of cardiac events by genotype-phenotype correlation studies has revealed that fatal arrhythmias in some genotypes are triggered by physical or emotional stress, and those in the others are more likely to occur during sleep or at rest. Thus, the risk stratification and management of affected patients differ strikingly according to the genetic variant of the inherited arrhythmia syndrome. Risk stratification may be further refined by considering the precipitating factors, such as drugs, bradycardia, electrolyte disturbances, fever, and cardiac memory. Moreover, an increasing number of studies imply that the susceptibility of fatal arrhythmias in patients with acute coronary syndrome or takotsubo cardiomyopathy is at least partly ascribed to the genetic variants causing inherited arrhythmia syndromes. In this article, we review the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular genetics and genotype-phenotype correlations in inherited arrhythmia syndromes and consider the triggers and precipitating factors for fatal arrhythmias in these disorders. Further studies to explore the triggers and precipitating factors specific to the genotypes and diseases are needed for better clinical management. (Circ J 2015; 79: 1185–1192)

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© 2015 THE JAPANESE CIRCULATION SOCIETY
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