Article ID: CJ-19-0317
Background:A substantial proportion of patients clinically diagnosed as having familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) do not manifest causative mutation(s) in the FH genes such asLDLR,APOB, andPCSK9. We aimed to evaluate the effect of rare and deleterious mutation(s) inABCG5/ABCG8on hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia in individuals who meet the clinical criteria for FH.
Methods and Results:We compared the LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) values among 487 subjects with FH; the subjects were grouped according to the presence of mutation(s) in FH andABCG5/ABCG8genes. We identified 276 individuals with a deleterious mutation in 1 FH gene (57%, monogenic FH), but found no causative mutations in 156 individuals (32%, mutation-negative). A total of 37 individuals had deleterious mutations inABCG5orABCG8, but not in FH genes (8%,ABCG5/ABCG8mutation carriers). Among these, 3 individuals had sitosterolemia (0.6%) with double mutations. We also identified 18 individuals with deleterious mutations in an FH gene andABCG5orABCG8(4%,ABCG5/ABCG8-oligogenic FH). Subjects without mutations had significantly higher polygenic scores than those in any other groups. LDL-C levels in oligogenic FH subjects were significantly higher than in the monogenic FH subjects. Moreover, sitosterol/lathosterol levels were significantly affected by those mutations.
Conclusions:The results suggested that rare and deleterious mutations inABCG5/ABCG8contribute substantially to mimicking and exacerbation of the FH phenotype.