2020 年 68 巻 4 号 p. 363-368
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) is a synthetic copolymer that has been used to design micro/nanoparticles as a carrier for macromolecules, such as protein and nucleic acids, that can be internalized by the endocytosis pathway. However, it is difficult to control the intracellular delivery to target organelles. Here we report an intracellular delivery system of nanoparticles modified with bacterial cytotoxins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and anti-inflammatory activity of the nanoparticles. Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is a bacterial toxin in certain enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains that cleaves the host ER chaperone BiP and suppresses nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and nitric oxide (NO) generation in macrophages at sub-lethal concentration. PLGA-nanoparticles were modified with oligo histidine-tagged (6 × His-tagged) recombinant SubAB (SubAB-PLGA) through a pH-sensitive linkage, and their translocation to the ER in macrophage cell line J774.1 cells, effects on inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokine induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined. Compared with free SubAB, SubAB-PLGA was significantly effective in BiP cleavage and the induction of the ER stress marker C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in J774.1 cells. Furthermore, SubAB-PLGA attenuated LPS-stimulated induction of iNOS and TNF-α. Our findings provide useful information for protein delivery to macrophages and may encourage therapeutic applications of nanoparticles to the treatment of inflammatory diseases.