hybrid catalysts have been designed based on the reaction mechanism of enzymes.
These catalysts using non-covalent intermolecular interactions exhibit
remarkable catalytic performance for the activation of α,β-unsaturated amides and carboxylic
acids as well as the dynamic kinetic resolution of a racemic electrophile in an
SN2-type reaction. These innovative
catalytic systems allow the asymmetric synthesis of biologically important
molecules such as atorvastatin, beraprost,
sitagliptin, and avenaol.
In Japan, environmental risk assessments
(ERA) for human pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments have barely begun. This
paper reports the first study assessing the validity of ERA guidance issued by
the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare in 2016 for new medicinal products
in the environment, using selected pharmaceuticals already on the market. The
accuracy of predicted environmental concentrations was evaluated by measuring
environmental concentrations in urban rivers. The results will be useful information
applicable to ERA for new medicinal products, and development of future ERA
standards in Japan.
PIM kinases are attractive therapeutic targets for the
treatment of multiple hematological malignancies. In search for novel PIM
kinase inhibitors, the authors designed and synthesized a series of 5-benzylidene-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one
derivatives with various substitutions at the pyrazine rings. Several compounds
exhibited subnanomolar to single-digit nanomolar potencies against all three
PIM isoforms and showed anti-proliferative activities against human
leukemic EOL-1 and MOLM-16 cell lines. The mechanism of action study of compound
17 clearly revealed that a pan-PIM
inhibitor reduced phosphorylation of downstream substrates of PIM kinase such
as BAD and 4EBP1 in a dose-dependent manner.
dissociation behavior of cocrystals is an essential task in particular during manufacturing
process of the solid dosage forms containing cocrystals as active
pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The authors have established the promising
technique with low-frequency Raman spectroscopy as a monitoring tool for
molecular state of APIs during wet granulation, which can detect the
dissociation of cocrystals successively and the rate calculated from the spectra
enabled to evaluate the stable cocrystal and the formulation with various
disintegrants. These findings would help researchers to consider developable
pharmaceuticals containing cocrystals.
An all-carbon quaternary stereocenter is found in many
biologically and pharmaceutically active compounds, in spite of being one of
the most difficult structures to construct in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.
In the present study, we were able to construct all-carbon quaternary stereocenters in an acyclic
system by utilizing a
face-selective alkylation of enolate intermediates derived from an asymmetric
Michael addition reaction of a chiral
lithium amide with trisubstituted α,β-unsaturated esters. Moreover, the obtained Michael adduct
was able to be converted to the β-amino ester having the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter by an oxidative deprotection.