Oxygen atoms have a lone pair of electrons, so they have high chelation ability, high nucleophilic ability, stabilizing ability of adjacent cations, and take a chelate or oxocarbenium ion structure with Lewis acids and metals. I took advantage of these properties to develop three new reactions, 1) asymmetric synthesis of chiral quaternary carbon centers, 2) asymmetric synthesis using acetal functions, and 3) organic chemistry using acetal-type reactive salt chemical species, and applied them to biologically active natural products synthesis. New reactions described here are all innovative and useful for natural products synthesis. In particular, the first asymmetric synthesis of fredericamycin A, and concise asymmetric synthesis of anthracycline antibiotics, scyphostatin, (+)-Sch 642305, (−)-stenine, clavolonine, (+)-rubrenolide, (+)-rubrynolide, (+)-centrolobine, and decytospolide A and B, etc., are noteworthy. Furthermore, since reactions using acetal-type reactive salt chemical species allow the coexistence of functional groups that normally cannot coexist, the reactions using reactive salts have potential to change the retrosynthesis planned based on conventional reactions.
In the present study, a novel cocrystal of felodipine (FEL) and β-resorcylic acid (βRA) was developed. We specially focused on the change of binding pattern with bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by cocrystallization of FEL with βRA. The solid characterizations and density functional theory (DFT) simulation verified that FEL–βRA cocrystal formed in equimolar ratio (1 : 1 M ratio) through C=O…H–O hydrogen bond between C=O group in FEL and O–H group in βRA. The binding interactions between FEL–βRA system and BSA were studied using fluorescence spectral and molecular docking methods. Two guest molecule systems, including a physical mixture of FEL and βRA and FEL–βRA cocrystal were performed binding to BSA in molecular docking. According to the Kb and binding energy, the supramolecular form of FEL–βRA system was retained during binding to BSA. Molecular docking simulation suggested that FEL and its cocrystal inserted into the subdomain IIIA (site II′) of BSA. The interactions between FEL and BSA including hydrogen bonding with ASN390 residue and intermolecular hydrophobic interactions with LEU429 and LEU452 residues. However, the size of supramolecular FEL–βRA better matched that of active cavity of BSA; the cocrystal is closely bound to BSA through hydrogen bonding with ASN390 residue and intermolecular hydrophobic interactions with LEU429, VAL432, LEU452 and ILE387 residues. This change on binding affinity of FEL to BSA induced by cocrystallization with βRA provided theoretical basis to evaluate the transportation, distribution and metabolism of cocrystal drug.
Binding assays are widely used to study the estrogenic activity of compounds targeting the estrogen receptor (ER). The fluorescence properties of benzofurazan (BD), an environmentally sensitive fluorophore, are affected by solvent polarity. In this study, we synthesized BD-labeled estradiol (E2) derivatives hoping to develop a fluorescent ligand to be used in ER binding assays, without the separation of free- from bound-ligand. Three fluorescent ligands with a BD skeleton were obtained and their fluorescence properties were investigated. Analysis of the fluorescent ligands and human recombinant ERα (hr-ERα) interactions revealed that the fluorescence intensity increased in hydrophobic environments, such as the receptor-binding site. In saturation binding assays, ABD-E2 derivative 2c showed positive cooperative binding, and its dissociation constant (Kd) and Hill coefficient were 23.4 nM and 1.34, respectively. The estrogenic compounds affinity, assessed by competitive binding assays was well correlated with the results obtained by conventional studies, using the fluorescence polarization method. Overall, the developed assay using BD-labeled ligands was a simple, rapid, and reliable method for the evaluation of ER binding affinity.
assays are widely used to study the estrogenic activity of endocrine-disrupting
chemicals targeting the estrogen receptor (ER). In this study, the authors synthesized benzofurazan-labeled estradiol
(BD-E2) derivatives as a fluorescent ligand for ER binding assays. BD-E2
compounds exhibit spectroscopic properties with high fluorescence intensities
and large Stokes shifts in a hydrophobic environment. Analysis of the fluorescent
ligands and human recombinant ER interactions revealed that the fluorescence
intensity increased in hydrophobic environments, such as the receptor-binding
site. By evaluation of the bound ligands based on changes in the fluorescence
intensity, the authors established a simple,
rapid, reliable ER binding assay.
Oleanolic and ursolic acids were used as lead compounds to synthesize a series of pentacyclic triterpenoid derivatives bearing ethylenediamine, butanediamine, or hexanediamine groups at the C-3 position. The potential antiproliferative activity of these compounds was examined in A549 (human non-small cell lung cancer cells), MCF-7 (human breast cancer cells), and HeLa (human cervical carcinoma cells) cells. Methyl 3β-O-[4-(2-aminoethylamino)-4-oxo-butyryl]olean-12-ene-28-oate (DABO-Me) was identified as a promising antiproliferative agent in vitro and in vivo. DABO-Me strongly suppressed the proliferation of A549, MCF-7, and HeLa cells (IC50 = 4–7 µM). In MCF-7 cells, DABO-Me upregulated the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, downregulated the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, promoted the release of cytochrome c, and activated caspase-3/9. Transwell and flow cytometry assays showed that DABO-Me inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis and S phase arrest. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that DABO-Me inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, these results indicate that DABO-Me could be developed as an effective antitumor drug.
Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been proved to be one of the most promising strategies for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancers. A series of 2-aryl-4-amino substituted quinazoline derivatives were designed and synthesized with the purpose to overcome L858R/T790M/C797S (CTL) triple mutant drug resistance and the biological activity for inhibition of CTL kinases and EGFR wild type (WT) were evaluated. Three compounds (20, 24 and 27) showed excellent inhibitory activities against EGFR kinases triple mutant CTL (IC50 < 1 µM) and high selectivity (IC50: WT/CTL >10000). Cell line evaluation showed that the most potent compound 27 was significantly potent against H1975-EGFR L858R/T790M (IC50 = 3.3 µM) and H1975-EGFR L858R/T790M/C797S (IC50 = 1.2 µM). Compound 27 also exhibited good microsomes stabilities in human, rat and mouse liver species, but low bioavailability. This work would be very useful for discovering new quinazoline derivatives as tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting triple mutant L858R/T790M/C797S.
Recently, owing to their pharmaceutical and clinical utility, mini-tablets have been well studied by researchers. Mini-tablets are usually manufactured by compression molding using a multiple-tip tool in a rotary tableting machine. Owing to their special structure, ensuring uniformity is a very important challenge in the manufacturability of mini-tablets using the multiple-tip tool. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the weight variation in mini-tablets produced by a multiple-tip tool, which is considered to be the root cause affecting the uniformity, and to investigate the physical properties of drug granules and tableting conditions in a rotary tableting machine that could reduce this weight variation. In addition, the relationship between these factors and response was visualized using response surface analysis. It was shown that the weight variation in mini-tablets produced by a multiple-tip tool was reduced when using a forced feeder compared with an open feeder. Furthermore, in the case of an open feeder, the optimal range of the average particle size diameter of drug granules and the rotational speed of the rotating disc in the rotary tableting machine were determined from response surface analysis. It was suggested that it is possible to reduce the weight variation in the mini-tablets by selecting drug granules with an average particle size diameter of 100–150 µm and using tableting conditions with a rotational speed of 40–60 rpm. This study elucidated the factors that affect uniformity and determined their optimal range for the manufacture of mini-tablets.
Dantrolene capsule, an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of spasticity, is administered to children who cannot swallow the capsule after reformulation into a powder. The powdered drug can alter the specified dosage and it is also difficult to dispense the powdered formulation because of its bulky and sticky nature. To resolve these problems, we reformulated dantrolene capsules into granules using a centrifugal planetary mixer in the pharmacy. The granules containing lactose-cornstarch, D-mannitol, or microcrystalline cellulose as a diluent were examined to determine particle size distribution, flowability, drug content uniformity, and disintegration time. The granules with microcrystalline cellulose were superior to the other forms, owing to their smaller size, good drug content uniformity, and rapid disintegration. We further investigated the usability of the granules in the dispensing procedure (dividing and packing) and in the dosing process (retrieval from package) using the powders as controls. The deviation of the divided amount and loss on dosing were reduced relative to the powders. In addition, drug dissolution properties and storage stability for 12 months were the same as those of the powders. Therefore, we concluded that dantrolene granules are excellent alternatives as an extemporaneous preparation in pharmacies.
An extemporaneous preparation, sodium
dantrolene granules, has been manufactured using planetary centrifugal
granulation method in the pharmacy. The amount of water was determined based on
plastic limit value of the formulation, which is a critical parameter of the
granulation method. The granulation process completes within 45 s, followed by
coating process (20 s). The resultant granules show sharp particle size
distribution and excellent flowability. The bulky powder was reformulated to the
granules with non-adhesive and free-flowing properties. Thus, the granulation
improves the usability of the medicine in the dispensing and dosing processes.
This study describes the novel utility of cyclic sulfamidite as a simultaneous protecting group for 1,2- or 1,3-amino alcohols. An exceptionally mild and neutral condition for the removal of the cyclic sulfamidite was developed. The deprotection condition demonstrated a broad range of functional-group compatibility, including a substrate bearing a Z-enyne structure without any loss of double-bond stereochemistry.
By comparing the two types of activated carbon fibers (ACFs), characteristics of adsorption sites for nitrate ion other than quaternary nitrogen (N-Q) were investigated. Using phenol resin as precursors, activation with ZnCl2 was performed, and then heat treatment at 950 °C was carried out to prepare ACFs without N-Q, while ACFs with N-Q was prepared in the same method using polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber as precursors. We assessed the amount of functional groups, elemental composition, porous properties, and model of unit crystal size of graphene. For both ACFs with N-Q and without N-Q, equilibrium adsorption amount was not always simply proportional to surface area, but to the average number of benzene rings (Bz-rings) of graphene universally. PhR-5.0Z4 had only 20 benzene rings per graphene unit, but after heat treatment at 950 °C, the number drastically increased to 1088 (PhR-5.0Z4-9.5HT30). However, when the ACFs contained a large amount of oxygen, the number of Bz-rings was limited to 792 (PhR-5.0Z4-Ox-9.5HT30) even after heat treatment at 950 °C, and did not increase sufficiently. Cπ sites are more susceptible to oxygen inhibition than N-Q in adsorbing nitrate ions. For ACFs having Cπ sites as main adsorption sites, the heat treatment at 950 °C without oxidation can enhance the nitrate ion adsorption capacity.
The quaternary nitrogen (N-Q) has been found to be
an effective adsorption site for nitrate ions. However, in addition to N-Q, there
are many functional groups such as C-π sites on activated carbon fibers (ACFs),
and these functional groups have various effects on the adsorption capacity. Understanding
the properties of functional groups other than N-Q can be expected to further
improve ACFs adsorption performance. In this paper, the authors prepared the ACFs
with and without N-Q and examined their adsorption properties.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of high-temperature storage on the stability of ranitidine, specifically with respect to the potential formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), which is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Commercially available ranitidine reagent powders and formulations were stored under various conditions, and subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis. When ranitidine tablets from two different brands (designated as tablet A and tablet B) were stored under accelerated condition (40 °C with 75% relative humidity), following the drug stability guidelines issued by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH-Q1A), for up to 8 weeks, the amount of NDMA in them substantially increased from 0.19 to 116 ppm and from 2.89 to 18 ppm, respectively. The formation of NDMA that exceeded the acceptable daily intake limit (0.32 ppm) at the temperature used under accelerated storage conditions clearly highlights the risk of NDMA formation in ranitidine formulations when extrapolated to storage under ambient conditions. A forced-degradation study under the stress condition (60 °C for 1 week) strongly suggested that environmental factors such as moisture and oxygen are involved in the formation of NDMA in ranitidine formulations. Storage of ranitidine tablets and reagent powders at the high temperatures also increased the amount of nitrite, which is considered one of the factors influencing NDMA formation. These data indicate the necessity of controlling/monitoring stability-related factors, in addition to controlling impurities during the manufacturing process, in order to mitigate nitrosamine-related health risks of certain pharmaceuticals.