Novel innovative catalytic systems such as hydrogen-bond donors and thiourea hybrid catalysts have been developed for the asymmetric synthesis of biologically important pharmaceuticals and natural products. Benzothiadiazines possess a stronger hydrogen-bond donor ability compared to thioureas and exhibit remarkable catalytic performance for the activation of α,β-unsaturated amides. Hybrid thioureas (bearing an arylboronic acid and an ammonium salt) efficiently promote the hetero-Michael addition to α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids and the O-alkylation of keto enols with 5-chlorofuran-2(5H)-one. These hybrid catalysts enable the first total synthesis of non-racemic avenaol, a noncanonical strigolactone, as well as the asymmetric synthesis of several pharmaceuticals. In addition, this study discovers unique chemical phenomena (i.e., the dual role of benzoic acid as a boron ligand and a proton shuttle, the chirality switch of products by solvent used, and the dynamic kinetic resolution of a racemic electrophile in an SN2-type reaction).
hybrid catalysts have been designed based on the reaction mechanism of enzymes.
These catalysts using non-covalent intermolecular interactions exhibit
remarkable catalytic performance for the activation of α,β-unsaturated amides and carboxylic
acids as well as the dynamic kinetic resolution of a racemic electrophile in an
SN2-type reaction. These innovative
catalytic systems allow the asymmetric synthesis of biologically important
molecules such as atorvastatin, beraprost,
sitagliptin, and avenaol.
Thiamine (vitamin B1), which is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi and plants and which humans should take with diet, participates in basic biochemical and physiological processes in a versatile way and its deficiency is associated with neurological problems accompanied by cognitive dysfunctions. The rat glioblastoma (C6) model was used, which was exposed to a limited environment and toxicity with glutamate. The cells were stressed by exposure to glutamate in the presence and absence of thiamine. The difference in cell proliferation was evaluated in the XTT assay. Oxidative stress (OS) markers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) levels, were measured with commercial kits. Apoptosis determined by flow cytometry was confirmed by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. At all concentrations, thiamine protects the cells and increased the viability against glutamate-induced toxicity. Thiamine also significantly decreased the levels of MDA, while increasing SOD and CAT levels. Moreover, thiamine reduced ER stress proteins’ levels. Moreover, it lessened the apoptotic cell amount and enhanced the live-cell percentage in the flow cytometry and DAPI staining. As a result, thiamine may be beneficial nutritional support for individuals with a predisposition to neurodegenerative disorders due to its protective effect on glutamate cytotoxicity in glioblastoma cells by suppressing OS and ER stress.
Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have become a public concern owing to their possible adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan (MHLW) issued “Guidance on the Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) in new pharmaceutical development” in 2016. To evaluate the validity of phase 1 in the MHLW’s ERA guidance, we monitored the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) of approved APIs in urban rivers and sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Japan and compared these MECs with the predicted environmental concentration (PEC). We collected water samples from urban seven rivers and three STPs during each season. Fifty-one APIs for human and veterinary use and the artificial sweetener sucralose were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Forty-four APIs were observed in the rivers and 42 were found in the influent and effluent of STPs, with levels ranging from nanograms to micrograms per liter. The action limit in phase I of the MHLW’s guidance was set to 10 ng/L, and there was no API except for ketoprofen, for which PEC of the MHLW’s guidance (PECjapan) was lower than 10 ng/L and the maximum MEC (MECmax) was 10 ng/L or greater. Almost all APIs also had median MECs that were lower than those of the respective PECjapan. These results indicate that the PECjapan values in phase I of the MHLW’s guidance were appropriate. However, some APIs had MECmax values that were greater than those of the respective PECjapan due to overestimation of the dilution factor of river water and/or underestimation of API production.
In Japan, environmental risk assessments
(ERA) for human pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments have barely begun. This
paper reports the first study assessing the validity of ERA guidance issued by
the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare in 2016 for new medicinal products
in the environment, using selected pharmaceuticals already on the market. The
accuracy of predicted environmental concentrations was evaluated by measuring
environmental concentrations in urban rivers. The results will be useful information
applicable to ERA for new medicinal products, and development of future ERA
standards in Japan.
Proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases are proto-oncogenic kinases involved in the regulation of several cellular processes. PIM kinases are promising targets for new drug development because they play a major role in many cancer-specific pathways, such as survival, apoptosis, proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and migration. Here, 2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as potent pan-PIM kinase inhibitors. Optimized compounds showed single-digit nanomolar IC50 values against all three PIM kinases with high selectivity over 14 other kinases. Compound 17 inhibited the growth of Molm-16 cell lines (EC50 = 14 nM) and modulated the expression of pBAD and p4EBP1 in a dose-dependent manner.
PIM kinases are attractive therapeutic targets for the
treatment of multiple hematological malignancies. In search for novel PIM
kinase inhibitors, the authors designed and synthesized a series of 5-benzylidene-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one
derivatives with various substitutions at the pyrazine rings. Several compounds
exhibited subnanomolar to single-digit nanomolar potencies against all three
PIM isoforms and showed anti-proliferative activities against human
leukemic EOL-1 and MOLM-16 cell lines. The mechanism of action study of compound
17 clearly revealed that a pan-PIM
inhibitor reduced phosphorylation of downstream substrates of PIM kinase such
as BAD and 4EBP1 in a dose-dependent manner.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether solid dispersions (SDs) are applicable to gummi formulations. Amenamevir was selected as a model of a poorly water-soluble drug, and polyvinyl alcohols (PVAs) with various degrees of hydrolysis (PVA 66, PVA 80, PVA 88, and PVA 66/88) were used as SD carriers. Design of experiments (DOE) was used to develop a gummi formulation that was suitable for an amenamevir SD using SD with PVA 66. Dissolution studies and clinical sensory tests on 11 formulations calculated by DOE revealed that a gummi formulation comprising 10.5% gelatin and 22.8% water was suitable for SD of the drug. Gummi formulations comprising amenamevir SDs with various PVAs were prepared using the determined gummi formulation, and their ability to dissolve amenamevir, their stability, and their oral absorption in dogs were evaluated. The results suggested that PVA 66, PVA 66/88, and PVA 80 were appropriate in terms of dissolution, stability, and in vivo absorption, respectively. Considering these results comprehensively, it was concluded that PVA 80, which enabled the highest degree of absorption, was the most suitable SD carrier for gummi formulations. Thus, it was possible to apply a PVA SD of amenamevir to gummi formulations.
N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a probable human carcinogen. This study investigated the root cause of the presence of NDMA in ranitidine hydrochloride. Forced thermal degradation studies of ranitidine hydrochloride and its inherent impurities (Imps. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, and K) listed in the European and United States Pharmacopeias revealed that in addition to ranitidine, Imps. A, C, D, E, H, and I produce NDMA at different rates in a solid or an oily liquid state. The rate of NDMA formation from amorphous Imps. A, C, and E was 100 times higher than that from crystalline ranitidine hydrochloride under forced degradation at 110 °C for 1 h. Surprisingly, crystalline Imp. H, bearing neither the N,N-dialkyl-2-nitroethene-1,1-diamine moiety nor a dimethylamino group, also generated NDMA in the solid state, while Imp. I, as an oily liquid, favorably produced NDMA at moderate temperatures (e.g., 50 °C). Therefore, strict control of the aforementioned specific impurities in ranitidine hydrochloride during manufacturing and storage allows appropriate control of NDMA in ranitidine and its pharmaceutical products. Understanding the pathways of the stability related NDMA formation enables improved control of the pharmaceuticals to mitigate this risk.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three coformers and five disintegrants in the granulation formulation on the dissociation of cocrystal during the granulation process by monitoring wet granulation with probe-type low-frequency Raman (LF-Raman) spectroscopy. As model cocrystals, paracetamol (APAP)-oxalic acid (OXA), APAP-maleic acid (MLA), and APAP-trimethylglycine (TMG) were used. The monitoring of the granulation recipe containing cocrystals during wet granulation was performed over time with high-performance LF-Raman spectrometry and the dissociation rate was calculated from the results of multivariate analysis of LF-Raman spectra. The dissociation rate decreased in the order of APAP-TMG, APAP-OXA, and APAP-MLA, showing the same order as observed in Powder X-ray diffraction measurements. Furthermore, to compare the effect of disintegrants on the dissociation rate of APAP-OXA, LF-Raman monitoring was performed for the granulation recipes containing five typical disintegrants (two low-substitution hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), cornstarch (CSW), carmellose sodium (CMC), and crospovidone (CRP)). The dissociation rate of APAP-OXA decreased in the order of CSW, HPCs, CMC, and CRP. This difference in the dissociation rate of APAP-OXA was thought to be due to the disintegration mechanism of the disintegrants and the water absorption ratio, which was expected to affect the water behavior on the disintegrant surface during wet granulation. These results suggested that probe-type LF-Raman spectroscopy is useful to monitor the dissociation behavior of cocrystals during wet granulation and can compare the relative stability of cocrystal during wet granulation between different formulations.
dissociation behavior of cocrystals is an essential task in particular during manufacturing
process of the solid dosage forms containing cocrystals as active
pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The authors have established the promising
technique with low-frequency Raman spectroscopy as a monitoring tool for
molecular state of APIs during wet granulation, which can detect the
dissociation of cocrystals successively and the rate calculated from the spectra
enabled to evaluate the stable cocrystal and the formulation with various
disintegrants. These findings would help researchers to consider developable
pharmaceuticals containing cocrystals.
Functionalized nucleobases are utilized in a wide range of fields; therefore, the development of new synthesis methods is essential for their continued application. With respect to the C6-arylation of halopurines, which possess a substituent at the N7-position, only a small number of successful cases have been reported, which is predominately a result of large steric hinderance effects. Herein, we report efficient and metal-free C6-arylations and SNAr reactions of N7-substituted chloropurines in aromatic and heteroatom nucleophiles promoted by triflimide (Tf2NH) in fluoroalcohol.
The synthesis of 2,2-dimethyloxepane frameworks based on the 7-endo-trig cyclization of ene-diol using a catalytic amount of metal catalysts (Au, Ag) or Brønsted acid (TfOH) has been developed. Also, the spiro-type dioxabicyclic products were also derived from the diene-diols. For the condition using metal catalysts, the cyclization selectively reacted between the 1,1,3-trisubstituted alkenes and alcohols to form the 2,2-dimethyloxepane frameworks. On the other hand, the TfOH reacted with not only the 1,1,2-trisubstituted alkene, but also the 1-substituted and 1,2-disubstituted alkenes providing the corresponding cyclic ethers, which is quite different from the conditions of the metal catalysts.
This study investigated the effect of manufacturing process variables of mini-tablets, in particular, the effect of process variables concerning fluidized bed granulation on tablet weight variation. Test granules were produced with different granulation conditions according to a definitive screening design (DSD). The five evaluated factors assigned to DSD were: the grinding speed of the sample mill at the grinding process of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (X1), microcrystalline cellulose content in granules (X2), inlet air temperature (X3), binder concentration (X4) and the spray speed of the binder solution (X5) at the granulation process. First, the relationships between the evaluated factors and the granule properties were investigated. As a result of the DSD analysis, the mode of action of granulation parameters on the granule properties was fully characterized. Subsequently, the variation in tablet weight was examined. In addition to mini-tablets (3 mm diameter), this experiment assessed regular tablets (8 mm diameter). From the results for regular tablets, the variation in tablet weight was affected by the flowability of granules. By contrast, regarding the mini-tablets, no significant effect on the variation of tablet weight was found from the evaluated factors. From this result, this study further focused on other important factors besides the granulation process, and then the effect of the die-hole position of the multiple-tip tooling on tablet weight variation was proven to be significant. Our findings provide a better understanding of manufacturing mini-tablets.
Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of cimetidine analogs, as well as their inhibitory activity toward the human multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1 (hMATE1), which is related to nephrotoxicity of drugs. Cimetidine is the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, but also inhibits hMATE1, which is known to cause renal impairment. We designed and synthesized cimetidine analogs to evaluate hMATE1 inhibitory activity to reveal whether the analogs could reduce the inhibition of hMATE1. The results showed that all analogs with an unsubstituted guanidino group exhibited hMATE1 inhibitory activity. On the other hand, there was a clear difference in the hMATE1 inhibitory activity for the other compounds. That is, compounds with a methylimidazole ring exhibited hMATE1 inhibition, while compounds with a phenyl ring did not. The results suggest that the ability to form hydrogen bonds at the azole moiety is strongly involved in the hMATE1 inhibition.
Two new trihydroxy derivative of Δ8(14),15-isopimarane diterpenoids, shanpanootols G (1) and H (2), along with three known analogues were isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble extract of Kaempferia pulchra rhizomes collected in Shan State of Myanmar. The structures of these compounds including their absolute configurations were elucidated by the combination of one dimensional (1D) and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods, high resolution mass spectrometric technique, and the experimental and the calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. The isopimarane diterpenoids (1–5) were tested for their Viral protein R (Vpr) inhibitory activities against TREx-HeLa-Vpr cells. Shanpanootol H (2) and (1R,2S,5S,9R,10S,13R)-1,2-dihydroxypimara-8(14),15-dien-7-one (4) exhibited anti-Vpr activities at the 5 µM treated dose.
Yellow Croaker Ear-stone or Yunaoshi, is actually two kinds of fish otolith in China and has received increased attention in recent years as important folk medicine. For better understanding of this crude drug, a chaotic market circulation status investigation was carried out and seventeen samples with different varieties or producing areas were collected. In this study, pharmacodynamic components of nineteen varieties mineral elements of the seventeen samples were simultaneously determined by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The detected elements were categorized into the beneficial (Na, Mg, Ca, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Sr, B) and unbeneficial elements (Cu, As, Cd, Hg, Al, Pb, Co, Ba, Cr and Ni) kinds and their concentrations were quantified. Then the principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were further applied to launch an exploratory analysis for Yunaoshi samples. The results showed that samples 1-3, 15-8, 15-3 ranked the top three from the perspective of beneficial elements and samples 1-3, 1-4, 15-2 ranked the top three based on the unbeneficial elements sides. Combined with HCA results, all samples can be used as the substitutes for Yunaoshi except for samples 1-3, 1-4 and 15-2 only judging from the perspective of mineral elements concentrations. In conclusion, simultaneous determination of mineral elements accompanied with PCA and HCA can not only provide pharmacogenetic reference for the medicinal material of Yunaoshi, but also establish a feasibility for exploring new crude resources or substitutes to this medicine.
Acyclic asymmetric quaternary stereocenters, which are composed of four carbon-carbon bonds, were finely constructed by utilizing a face-selective alkylation of enolate intermediates derived from an asymmetric Michael addition reaction of a chiral lithium amide with trisubstituted (E)-α,β-unsaturated esters. The present face-selective alkylation was able to employ diverse alkyl halides as an electrophile to afford various Michael adducts having an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter. With regard to the deprotection of the chiral auxiliary, N-iodosuccinimide used in our previous study did not work in the present cases; however, we found that pyridine iodine monochloride in the presence of H2O was effective to remove the bornyl group and the benzyl group on the amino group to provide the β-amino ester derivative.
An all-carbon quaternary stereocenter is found in many
biologically and pharmaceutically active compounds, in spite of being one of
the most difficult structures to construct in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.
In the present study, we were able to construct all-carbon quaternary stereocenters in an acyclic
system by utilizing a
face-selective alkylation of enolate intermediates derived from an asymmetric
Michael addition reaction of a chiral
lithium amide with trisubstituted α,β-unsaturated esters. Moreover, the obtained Michael adduct
was able to be converted to the β-amino ester having the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter by an oxidative deprotection.