1966 年 21 巻 p. 177-189,en237
Research findings concerning social class differences in mental illness were reviewed. These studies made significant contributions to social-psychological analysis of social class characteristics as well as to social etiology of mental illness.
Many studies, e. g., Hollingshead&Redlich, clearly indicated that there was a negative correlation between social class indices and the prevalence of mental illnenss.(The lower class showed a high rate of prevalence) Three types of explanations were suggested to account for the difference: Some researchers examined “drift hypothesis”, which reduced differential prevalence to heredity factors and asumed downward mobility of the mentally ill. Evidences were not consisistent on this point. Others tried to demonstrate social class differences in diagnosis and treatment. These factors, though seemed to have some effects, were probably not the only ones that made the difference.
The third explanation, which was the most attractive for educational sociologists, was that social class sub-culture influenced socialization process of a child and social interaction of family members. It seemed reasonable to interprete the findings, especially the one by Myers&Roberts, as follows:
1) In class III (lower-middle class) parents and teachers expect and encourage a child's success or upward mobility so intensely that, in some instances, social stress and tensions are produced, which lead to maladjustment, but generally they develop a child's high achievement motive.
2) In class V (lower-lower class) lack of adequate nurturant and educating agents develops socially deviant or “maladjustive” patterns of behavior, which bring about mental illness in the most severe cases.