Terahertz spectroscopy has rapidly progressed, and is being applied to various research fields as a new non-invasive examination method. Scientific analysis is important for the conservation of art, as it can help to reveal the history of a work and to determine the proper materials for its restoration. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray analysis are currently used to identify organic and inorganic materials, respectively. Terahertz spectroscopy is expected to identify composites themselves, and to give clear and direct information for art conservation. We have collected terahertz spectra of various historical and modern materials, and found that terahertz spectroscopy can distinguish the pigments, binders and their mixtures. The experimental results prove that terahertz spectroscopy as a new non-invasive examination method can contribute to art history and to restorations. The material database can also contribute to other fields such as earth science, the printing industry, and the food and pharmaceutical research fields.