2019 Volume 66 Issue 7 Pages 581-586
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become a promising treatment for advanced malignancies. However, these drugs can induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in several organs, including skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, muscle, nerve, and endocrine organs. Endocrine irAEs comprise hypopituitarism, primary adrenal insufficiency, thyroid dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. These conditions have the potential to lead to life-threatening consequences, such as adrenal crisis, thyroid storm, severe hypocalcemia, and diabetic ketoacidosis. It is therefore important that both endocrinologists and oncologists understand the clinical features of each endocrine irAE to manage them appropriately. This opinion paper provides the guidelines of the Japan Endocrine Society and in part the Japan Diabetes Society for the management of endocrine irAEs induced by ICIs.