Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become a promising treatment for advanced malignancies. However, these drugs can induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in several organs, including skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, muscle, nerve, and endocrine organs. Endocrine irAEs comprise hypopituitarism, primary adrenal insufficiency, thyroid dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. These conditions have the potential to lead to life-threatening consequences, such as adrenal crisis, thyroid storm, severe hypocalcemia, and diabetic ketoacidosis. It is therefore important that both endocrinologists and oncologists understand the clinical features of each endocrine irAE to manage them appropriately. This opinion paper provides the guidelines of the Japan Endocrine Society and in part the Japan Diabetes Society for the management of endocrine irAEs induced by ICIs.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents a serious reproductive and endocrine condition and is associated with high incidence rates. H19 is a compelling long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) which carries out a range of biological functions. However, prior to this study, little was known as to whether there was an association between lncRNA H19 and PCOS. In the current study, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to determine lncRNA H19 expression levels in peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with PCOS and compared this data with that derived from normal controls. We also screened data for potential relationships between lncRNA H19 and a range of endocrine variables in PCOS. The expression of lncRNA H19 was significantly higher in cases of PCOS than in controls. Individuals exhibiting higher expression levels of lncRNA H19 were associated with a significantly higher risk of PCOS than those with lower expression levels. Moreover, lncRNA H19 expression was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose levels; this was the case with both raw data, and after adjustment for age and BMI in the PCOS group. However, lncRNA H19 expression showed no significant correlation with total testosterone or insulin resistance in either PCOS cases or the controls. In conclusion, we demonstrate the first evidence to indicate that lncRNA H19 is associated with PCOS, suggesting that elevated lncRNA H19 levels are a risk factor for PCOS. For susceptible individuals, lncRNA H19 may represent a useful biomarker of the early stages of endocrine and metabolic disorders in PCOS.
Sorafenib has emerged as an effective therapeutic option for radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). We investigated the efficacy and safety of sorafenib treatment in a real-world setting and unveil predictive markers of responsiveness to sorafenib. The treatment response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and adverse events (AEs) of sorafenib-treated RAI-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic DTC patients at three institutes were retrospectively reviewed, and their tumor doubling time was calculated by three investigators. Total eighty-five patients were treated with sorafenib, and seven patients discontinued sorafenib due to AEs before the first tumor assessment. The median PFS was 14.4 months, and the objective response rate was 10.3% in 78 patients who were able to evaluate the tumor response. Age, sex, histologic type, tumor location, RAI avidity, or the presence of FDG-PET uptake did not affect PFS. However, smaller tumor size (≤1.5 cm) of the target lesions in lung showed better PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.39, p = 0.01), and tumors with the shortest doubling time (≤6 months) had worse outcome (HR 2.70, p < 0.01). Because of AEs, dose reductions or drug interruptions were required in 64% of patients, and eventually, 23% of patients discontinued sorafenib permanently. The most common AE was hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR). Patients with severe HFSR showed better PFS, but there were no statistical significance (HR 0.65, p = 0.05). In conclusion, small tumor size and long doubling time of each target lesion can be a prognostic marker to predict the responsiveness to sorafenib in RAI-refractory DTC patients.
In this study, we investigated the relationships between body weight (BW), computed tomography (CT)-assessed abdominal adipose tissue, and the glycemic metabolic profile in obese Japanese patients following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). This study analyzed adipose tissue compartments using CT methods before and 1 year after LSG. Thirty obese patients were studied, and variables measured included visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), density of VAT (VAT-D), and density of SAT (SAT-D). We also examined the parameters in patients according to whether they had type-2 diabetes (T2DM). LSG induced significant losses in BW, SAT, and VAT after LSG. Additionally, SAT-D and VAT-D both increased and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c, but not C-peptide, decreased after surgery. ΔSAT and ΔVAT were positively related, and ΔSAT-D and ΔVAT-D were negatively related to ΔBW and/or FPG. Furthermore, a multivariate regression model showed that total BW loss (TBWL) was closely related to ΔSAT (β = 0.84; p < 0.001) and ΔVAT-D (β = –0.45; p < 0.05) and improvement of FPG was related to ΔVAT (β = 0.61; p < 0.05) after LSG. Finally, ΔFPG was correlated with ΔVAT in 16 T2DM patients (r = 0.58; p < 0.05) but not in non-T2DM patients. TBWL was related to ΔSAT and ΔVAT-D, and improvement of FPG was related to ΔVAT in obese Japanese patients after LSG.
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus is an antitumor agent known to cause hyperglycemia. However, the clinical course of everolimus-induced hyperglycemia, its pathophysiological basis, and the treatment strategy are not clear. In this case series report, we present the clinical course of everolimus-induced hyperglycemia in four patients. Hyperglycemia occurred 3–8 weeks after the administration of everolimus irrespective of the body mass index (range, 21.3–29.1 kg/m2) or pre-existing diabetes. Insulin or insulin secretagogues were required for glycemic control in most of the patients. Of note, the hyperglycemia was reversible in all patients, and none of the patients required anti-diabetic agents to achieve adequate glycemic control after cessation of everolimus therapy. To investigate the underlying mechanism of everolimus-induced hyperglycemia, we assessed insulin secretion and sensitivity by 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, arginine challenge test, and/or hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study using stable isotope-labeled glucose tracer in two patients. Everolimus did not affect insulin sensitivity in the liver, skeletal muscle, or the adipose tissue. In contrast, everolimus impaired insulin secretion and thereby increased basal hepatic glucose production. These findings further our understanding of the role of mTOR in glucose homeostasis in humans and provide insights for treatment strategies against everolimus-induced hyperglycemia.
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), secreted from enteroendocrine K cells, has potent insulin-releasing and extrapancreatic glucoregulatory activities. However, exogenous GIP has less potent biological effects compared with another incretin hormone, GLP-1, which limits its use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The fate and secretion of administered native GIP remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify plasma binding proteins for human GIP. Fluorescent-labelled GIP was added to fresh human plasma and subjected to clear native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (CN-PAGE). Then fluorescent protein bands were in-gel trypsin-digested and subjected to liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, revealing the presence of albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and transferrin. In contrast to GIP, the binding of fluorescent GLP-1 and glucagon to plasma protein fractions were minimal. CN-PAGE analysis of synthetic GIP incubated with human serum albumin, purified IgG or transferrin, and subsequent western blot analysis revealed that GIP binds to each of these proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that GIP readily binds to albumin, IgG and transferrin, three plasma proteins highly abundant in the human peripheral circulation. Separation of protein complexes using CN-PAGE and the identification of in-gel digested proteins by LC-MS/MS analysis provide a promising strategy to identify plasma binding proteins for bioactive peptides.
Increasing of arterial stiffness is the pathophysiological characteristic of hypertension. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) is an index of arterial stiffness. Serum uric acid has been found to be involved the development of hypertension. We investigated the relationship between CF-PWV and serum uric acid in subjects with hypertension and hyperuricemia. 651 subjects (M/F 271/380) were divided into four groups, group 1: subjects without hypertension and hyperuricemia; group 2: hypertension subjects without hyperuricemia; group 3: hyperuricemia subjects without hypertension; group 4: subjects with hypertension and hyperuricemia. CF-PWV was measured by Complior apparatus. Results showed that levels of CF-PWV (10.75 ± 2.03 vs. 10.06 ± 1.98 m/s, p < 0.001) and serum uric acid (319.33 ± 80.12 vs. 298.78 ± 74.88 umol/L, p = 0.001) were significantly higher in hypertensive (groups 2 + 4) group than in normotensive (groups 1 + 3) group. CF-PWV was significantly higher in group 4 than group 1, group 2 and group 3 (ANOVA analysis: F = 13.348, p < 0.001; 11.78 ± 2.10 vs. 9.98 ± 1.98, 10.52 ± 1.93, 10.56 ± 1.99 m/s, all p < 0.05, respectively). There was positive correlation between CF-PWV and serum uric acid in entire study group (r = 0.187, p < 0.001), even after adjusting for gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.100, p = 0.015). Multiple linear regressions showed that SBP, age, benzbromarone, statin and serum uric acid were independent associating factors of CFPWV in all subjects (β = 0.310, p < 0.001; β = 0.330, p < 0.001; β = 0.172, p = 0.002; β = –0.143, p = 0.006; β = 0.126, p = 0.027; respectively). In conclusions, CF-PWV was significantly higher in hypertension subjects with hyperuricemia compared to hypertension without hyperuricemia subjects, and serum uric acid was an independent associating factor of CF-PWV.
Low endogenous testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, little is known about the relationships between testosterone or SHBG and liver fibrosis in NAFLD. Thus, we aimed to clarify the relationships between serum testosterone or SHBG concentration and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, a marker of liver fibrosis. Serum testosterone was assayed in various forms (total testosterone [TT], calculated free testosterone [cFT], calculated bioavailable testosterone [cbT], and SHBG) and metabolic markers were also measured in 363 Japanese men (mean age 51.1 ± 8.7 years) at routine health examinations. We then attempted to identify the factors contributing to liver fibrosis by investigating the associations between the metabolic markers, including testosterone, and FIB-4 index. People with a relatively high FIB-4 index (≥1.3) demonstrated lower cFT, cbT, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-β, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and blood urea nitrogen, but higher SHBG, than those with a lower FIB-4 index (<1.3). There were no significant differences in HbA1c, fasting glucose concentration, HOMA-R, or metabolic syndrome prevalence between the two groups. Binary regression analysis revealed that SHBG ≥52 nmol/L and cFT <8.0 ng/dL were statistically significant risk factors for FIB-4 index ≥1.3. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that cFT <7.62 ng/dL (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.639) and SHBG ≥49.8 nmol/L (AUC = 0.649) were the strongest risk factors for FIB-4 index ≥1.3. In contrast to previous findings showing low SHBG concentrations in NAFLD, we provide evidence that high SHBG and low bioactive testosterone are associated with liver fibrosis.
A number of data on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in singleton pregnancy is available, however, little is known about the glycemic characteristics of twin pregnancy with GDM. The aim of this study was to compare the severity of dysglycemia between twin and singleton pregnancies with GDM (T-GDM and S-GDM). We retrospectively analyzed pregnancies with GDM defined by the Japan Diabetes Society criteria (T-GDM, n = 20; S-GDM, n = 451) in our hospital. During the study period, women with GDM underwent self-monitoring of blood glucose measurements as well as dietary management. Insulin treatment was initiated when dietary treatment did not achieve the glycemic goal. The glycemic and metabolic characteristics were compared between T-GDM and S-GDM, as follows: gestational week at the diagnosis of GDM, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results, HbA1c, insulin secretion (i.e. insulinogenic index [IGI] and Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 [ISSI-2]), and insulin requirement before delivery. The rate of one abnormal OGTT value in T-GDM was similar to that in S-GDM (60% vs. 71%). There were no significant differences in gestational week and levels of HbA1c at diagnosis, levels of IGI and ISSI-2 between T-GDM and S-GDM (median, 20 weeks vs. 17 weeks, 5.0% vs. 5.2%, 0.58 vs. 0.71, 1.7 vs. 1.8, respectively). The rate of insulin treatment and a median dosage of insulin needed before delivery was comparable between the two groups (T-GDM vs. S-GDM: 45% vs. 32% and 14 vs. 13 unit/day). Our data suggested that the severity of dysglycemia in T-GDM was similar to that in S-GDM during pregnancy.
A 34-year-old woman presented our hospital with complaint of irregular menstruation and abnormal uterine bleeding lasting for a month. After her second parturition at the age of 27, her menstrual cycle had been regular, but it suddenly became irregular at the age of 30. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed the presence of ovarian mass, and the patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopic surgery. Bilateral ovaries temporally shrink after puncture but the size soon resumed. Gonadotropins were almost normal, but estradiol and PRL levels turned out to be elevated, and cabergoline treatment was initiated. After referral to our hospital, we found that the ovaries showed multifollicular appearance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an 18-mm macroadenoma in the suprasellar area. To suppress the secretion of endogenous gonadotropins and estrogen, low-dose estrogen-progestin was prescribed. Surprisingly, the treatment temporarily reduced the size of the ovaries. The patient was referred to a neurosurgeon, and a functioning gonadotroph adenoma was suspected. After the resection of the pituitary tumor, her menstrual cycle became regular, and the size of bilateral ovaries became normal. We also noticed that her ovarian reserve judged by anti-Müllerian hormone had been almost diminished after the surgical treatment, probably reflecting the exhaustion of follicular pool. Women with multifollicular ovaries and elevated estradiol levels may have functioning gonadotroph adenomas, although the level of FSH is relatively normal, and ovarian reserve can be followed by measuring anti-Müllerian hormone.