Endocrine Journal
Online ISSN : 1348-4540
Print ISSN : 0918-8959
ISSN-L : 0918-8959
Factors predicting endocrine late effects in childhood cancer survivors from a Japanese hospital
Shunsuke ShimazakiItsuro KazukawaKyoko MoriMakiko KiharaMasanori Minagawa
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2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 131-140


We retrospectively analyzed endocrine late effects in 81 childhood cancer survivor (CCS) patients who had been referred to our endocrinology department in Chiba Children’s Hospital between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2016. Among 69 eligible patients (33 male, 36 female), endocrine late effects were identified in 56 patients (81.1%). The median age at the last visit to our endocrinology department was 17.4 years (range: 7.1–35.3 years). The most common primary cancer was acute lymphoblastic leukemia (22 patients, 31.8%). Forty-four patients (64%) were treated using radiation therapy. A primary brain tumor and high doses (≥6 g/m2) of cyclophosphamide were significantly associated with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Our present study suggests that high doses of cyclophosphamide is a risk factor for GHD. Adult heights and pubertal growth spurts of patients treated with radiation therapy were significantly lower than patients not treated with radiation therapy. Our retrospective study reconfirmed that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) were associated with elevated risks of primary hypothyroidism. However, it is unclear whether GVHD induces thyroid dysfunction. Gonadal radiation and busulfan were associated with primary hypogonadism as reported in previous studies. We found high doses of cyclophosphamide to be involved in pituitary disorders. We suggest that pediatric endocrinologists should discuss the potential effects of radiation therapy on adult height and pubertal growth spurt in CCS patients. Moreover, patients who have been treated with high doses of cyclophosphamide or have chronic GVHD require long-term follow-up for endocrine late effects.

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