Endocrine Journal
Online ISSN : 1348-4540
Print ISSN : 0918-8959
ISSN-L : 0918-8959
Volume 67 , Issue 2
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
REVIEW
  • Miyako Tanaka
    Type: Review
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 107-111
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: December 19, 2019
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    Metabolic syndrome is a common metabolic disorder that involves multiple organs and is predominantly influenced by obesity, especially the accumulation of visceral fat. It is also known that macrophages that infiltrate obese adipose tissue play an important role in inflammation of the adipose tissue. Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle), a new inflammatory regulator found in obese adipose tissue, is expressed in pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages in adipose tissue. In addition, Mincle is expressed in macrophages that form a crown-like structure, where dead or dying adipocytes are surrounded by pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages; within this crown-like structure, adipocyte–macrophage crosstalk may occur in close proximity. Although there is no significant difference in body weight between Mincle-deficient and wild-type mice under high-fat diet, the epididymal fat weight is significantly higher and the liver weight is significantly lower in Mincle-deficient mice than those in wild-type mice. It has been shown that adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis are attenuated in Mincle-deficient mice when compared with wild-type mice. In addition, Mincle-deficient mice have reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and better glucose metabolism. These results suggest that Mincle signaling in adipose tissue macrophages activates adipose tissue fibroblasts, which leads to adipose tissue fibrosis.

ORIGINAL
  • Xu-hang Zhu, Jing-nan Zhou, Yang-yang Qian, Ke Yang, Qing-liang Wen, Q ...
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 113-123
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 14, 2019
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    Supplementary material

    Thyroglobulin measurement in the needle washout after fine-needle aspiration (FNA-Tg) served as an important measurement for suspicious recurrent or metastatic lesions. We conducted a pooled analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FNA-Tg and searched electronic databases for original articles in English from 1993 through 2017. Finally, a total of 22 studies containing 2,670 lymph nodes (LNs) that enrolled participants with suspicious neck LNs during thyroid nodule workup or papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) follow-up were included. In our analysis, the overall pooled sensitivity for FNA-Tg was 0.91 (95%CI: 0.87–0.93), specificity was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91–0.96). Meta regression revealed that the cutoff value and status of serum Tg were sources of heterogeneity for sensitivity, and the cutoff value was source of heterogeneity for specificity. Additionally, the cutoff value and status of serum Tg were sources of heterogeneity in the joint model. Subgroup analysis about cut-off value showed that the choice of 1 ng/mL had highest sensitivity, 40 ng/mL had highest specificity. At last, we arrived at the conclusion that FNA-Tg measurement had high specificity and sensitivity in the early detection of LNs metastases from PTC by our meta-analysis. The technique was simple and could be recommended to apply in any FNA facility, especially when LN were small-sized. Significantly, a better standardization of criteria for FNA-Tg detection and cutoff value was required to provide useful data and to improve management of PTC patients in the future.

  • Kenji Ohba, Masato Maekawa, Kunihiro Iwahara, Yasuhide Suzuki, Akio Ma ...
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 125-130
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 24, 2019
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    A 74-year-old asymptomatic Japanese man with suspected thyroid dysfunction was referred to our hospital. He had an elevated TSH (53.8 mIU/L; reference interval: 0.5–5.0) despite a free T4 (FT4) level (1.4 ng/dL; reference interval: 0.9–1.6). Further analysis revealed macro-TSH. A notable finding was that a 500-μg TRH stimulation test revealed a blunted free T3 (FT3) response despite a prolonged TSH response. Macro-TSH typically presents with inappropriately marked elevation of serum TSH levels compared with other thyroid hormones, as exhibited in our case. However, the level of TSH elevation that might differentiate macro-TSH from subclinical hypothyroidism is poorly known. We retrospectively analyzed 8,183 concurrent measurements of TSH and FT4 in individuals previously examined in our hospital to define the cut-off value for screening cases of inappropriate TSH elevation. FT4 values were rounded off to one decimal place, and the 97.5th percentile of TSH against each FT4 value was calculated. The data of our patient and that of 30 cases of macro-TSH extracted from the English literature were then assessed. When the approximate curve obtained from the 97.5th percentile of TSH values was defined as the cut-off value [Log10TSH = 0.700 + 1.549/{1 + (FT4/0.844)6.854}], 25 of the 31 (80.6%) macro-TSH cases were identified. In conclusion, we report for the first time a case of macro-TSH demonstrating an abnormal FT3 response to TRH. A cut-off value of TSH adjusted to the FT4 level may be a good method of screening for inappropriate TSH elevation (or inappropriate hyperthyrotropinemia) including those caused by macro-TSH.

  • Shunsuke Shimazaki, Itsuro Kazukawa, Kyoko Mori, Makiko Kihara, Masano ...
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 131-140
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 25, 2019
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    We retrospectively analyzed endocrine late effects in 81 childhood cancer survivor (CCS) patients who had been referred to our endocrinology department in Chiba Children’s Hospital between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2016. Among 69 eligible patients (33 male, 36 female), endocrine late effects were identified in 56 patients (81.1%). The median age at the last visit to our endocrinology department was 17.4 years (range: 7.1–35.3 years). The most common primary cancer was acute lymphoblastic leukemia (22 patients, 31.8%). Forty-four patients (64%) were treated using radiation therapy. A primary brain tumor and high doses (≥6 g/m2) of cyclophosphamide were significantly associated with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Our present study suggests that high doses of cyclophosphamide is a risk factor for GHD. Adult heights and pubertal growth spurts of patients treated with radiation therapy were significantly lower than patients not treated with radiation therapy. Our retrospective study reconfirmed that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) were associated with elevated risks of primary hypothyroidism. However, it is unclear whether GVHD induces thyroid dysfunction. Gonadal radiation and busulfan were associated with primary hypogonadism as reported in previous studies. We found high doses of cyclophosphamide to be involved in pituitary disorders. We suggest that pediatric endocrinologists should discuss the potential effects of radiation therapy on adult height and pubertal growth spurt in CCS patients. Moreover, patients who have been treated with high doses of cyclophosphamide or have chronic GVHD require long-term follow-up for endocrine late effects.

  • Takamasa Ichijo, Hajime Ueshiba, Hajime Nawata, Toshihiko Yanase
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 141-152
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2019
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    Supplementary material

    The aim of this study was to reveal clear epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of incidentally discovered adrenal masses, termed adrenal incidentalomas (AIs), and to establish appropriate managemental and therapeutic regimens in Japan. This study had been originally carried out as a project of a research proposed on behalf of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, from 1999 to 2004. This nationwide multicenter study on AIs included 3,672 cases with clinically diagnosed AIs, involving 1,874 males and 1,738 females, with mean age 58.1 ± 13.0 years (mean ± SD). In the present study, we focused on the investigation of the real prevalence of various adrenal disorders with AI. The mean nodule size of AI based on computed tomography was 3.0 ± 2.0 cm. Compared to non-functioning adenomas (NFAs), tumor diameters were significantly larger in adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), pheochromocytomas, cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs), myelolipomas, metastatic tumors, cysts, and ganglioneuromas (p < 0.01). Endocrinological evaluations demonstrated that 50.8% of total AIs were non-functioning adenomas, while 10.5%, including 3.6% with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome, were reported as CPAs, 8.5% as pheochromocytomas, and 5.1% as aldosterone-producing adenomas. ACCs were accounted for 1.4% (50 cases) among our series of AIs. In conclusion, while almost 50 % of AIs are non-functional adenomas, we must be particularly careful as AIs include pheochromocytomas or adrenal carcinomas, because they may be asymptomatic. To our knowledge, this is the first and the largest investigation of AI, thus providing basic information for the establishment of clinical guidelines for the management of AI.

  • Junichiro Irie, Emi Inagaki, Masataka Fujita, Hideaki Nakaya, Masanori ...
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 153-160
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 02, 2019
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    Supplementary material

    Recent studies have revealed that decline in cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels causes aging-related disorders and therapeutic approaches increasing cellular NAD+ prevent these disorders in animal models. The administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) has been shown to mitigate aging-related dysfunctions. However, the safety of NMN in humans have remained unclear. We, therefore, conducted a clinical trial to investigate the safety of single NMN administration in 10 healthy men. A single-arm non-randomized intervention was conducted by single oral administration of 100, 250, and 500 mg NMN. Clinical findings and parameters, and the pharmacokinetics of NMN metabolites were investigated for 5 h after each intervention. Ophthalmic examination and sleep quality assessment were also conducted before and after the intervention. The single oral administrations of NMN did not cause any significant clinical symptoms or changes in heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature. Laboratory analysis results did not show significant changes, except for increases in serum bilirubin levels and decreases in serum creatinine, chloride, and blood glucose levels within the normal ranges, independent of the dose of NMN. Results of ophthalmic examination and sleep quality score showed no differences before and after the intervention. Plasma concentrations of N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide and N-methyl-4-pyridone-5-carboxamide were significantly increased dose-dependently by NMN administration. The single oral administration of NMN was safe and effectively metabolized in healthy men without causing any significant deleterious effects. Thus, the oral administration of NMN was found to be feasible, implicating a potential therapeutic strategy to mitigate aging-related disorders in humans.

  • Teng Zhao, Yunhui Xin, Hong Shen, Xing Liu, Jiacheng Wang, Qian Wang, ...
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 161-165
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 02, 2019
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    Ectopic parathyroid adenomas (PAs) can occur in numerous locations and are thought to be the cause of a significant portion of failed primary surgery for hyperparathyroidism. PA is a rare cause of hoarseness, which may be harbingers of a malignant process. Here, we describe an unusual case of an ectopic PA in the carotid sheath presenting as unilateral vocal cord paralysis (VCP). A 49-year-old lady presented with a 1-week history of hoarseness, irritating cough and shortness of breath. Fibreoptic laryngoscopy revealed left VCP. Ultrasound and computed tomography of the neck demonstrated a mass in the carotid sheath. Laboratory investigations revealed hypercalcemia (3.10 mmol/L), hypophosphatemia (0.81 mmol/L) and elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level (381.6 pg/mL), despite of a negative 99mTc-sestamibi scan. After more rigorous tests, the ectopic tumor adjacent to the left vagus nerve was successfully resected, with subsequent histopathological confirmation of PA. The patient eventually got a normal iPTH level and serum calcium postoperatively, and regular voice function was also regained 4 months after surgery. This case emphasizes the importance of broad differential diagnosis and thorough workup. Although most patients with PA present with hypercalcemia, this disease entity also need to be considered in the differentials of neck masses and VCP.

  • Akimi Soga, Izumi Fukuda, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Shigeyuki Tahara, Akio M ...
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 167-175
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 26, 2019
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    Non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is one common cause of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD). In Japan, a GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-2 test is used to evaluate GH secretion. Although the cut-off for peak GH during a GHRP-2 test for severe AGHD is ≤9 ng/mL, severe AGHD may further diminish responses (range, nearly no-response to ≤9 ng/mL). We studied whether the peak GH responses during a GHRP-2 test could be predicted based on clinical characteristics of patients with NFPA. We compared patients with almost no-response during a GHRP-2 test with other patients considered as severe AGHD. Among the 76 patients with NFPA who were admitted to our institution, 36 patients (mean age, 61 years; male/female, n = 23/n = 13) were diagnosed with severe AGHD based on a preoperative GHRP-2 test. Based on the preoperative median peak GH concentration (2.83 ng/mL), patients were divided into two groups (<median = low or group L, n = 18; ≥median = moderate or group M, n = 18). Clinical manifestations, body mass index, severity of hypopituitarism and tumor size, volume, and extension were analyzed retrospectively. Compared with group M, group L patients were significantly older and more gonadotropin and ACTH deficient. A lower peak GH release during a GHRP-2 test was associated with a higher number of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies across all 76 patients. Postoperatively, seven in group M and no patient in group L were assessed as having no longer severe AGHD, respectively. Preoperative peak GH concentrations assessed during a GHRP-2 test reflected the severity of hypopituitarism and the recovery of postoperative GH secretion.

  • Kazunori Kageyama, Yuko Asari, Yuko Sugimoto, Kanako Niioka, Makoto Da ...
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 177-184
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 30, 2019
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    Cushing’s disease is primarily caused by autonomic hypersecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from a pituitary adenoma. In Cushing’s disease, mutations in the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) have been detected. These mutations are associated with hyperactivation of USP8 that prevent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation. This leads to increased EGFR stability and results in the maintenance of EGFR signaling in Cushing’s disease. USP8 inhibitors can suppress the growth of various tumors. In this study, the effects of a potent USP8 inhibitor, DUBs-IN-2, on ACTH production and cell proliferation were examined in mouse corticotroph tumor (AtT-20) cells. Proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) mRNA levels and ACTH levels were decreased in AtT-20 cells by DUBs-IN-2. Further, cell proliferation was inhibited, and apoptosis was induced by DUBs-IN-2. Transcript levels of pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (Pttg1), a pituitary tumor growth marker, were increased; and transcript levels of stress response growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 (Gadd45β) and Cdk5 and ABL enzyme substrate 1 (Cables1) mRNA levels were increased in response to the drug. Gadd45β or Cables1 knockdown partially inhibited the DUBs-IN-2-induced decrease in cell proliferation, but not Pomc mRNA levels. Both GADD45β and CABLES1 may be responsible, at least in part, for the USP8-induced suppression of corticotroph tumor cell proliferation. USP-8 may be a new treatment target in Cushing’s disease.

  • Tomoko Nakata, Yoshitaka Hirano, Harumi Katsumata, Reiko Tokita, Takas ...
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 185-200
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2019
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    Growth hormone (GH) has multiple physiological roles, acting on many organs. In order to investigate its roles in rat liver, we tried to identify novel genes whose transcription was regulated by GH. We identified X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) as a candidate gene. XBP1 is a key transcription factor activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mode of action of GH on XBP1, including the relation with ER stress, sex-dependent expression of the mRNA, and the signaling pathway. Intravenous administration of GH rapidly and transiently increased Xbp1 mRNA in hypophysectomized rat livers. Neither phosphorylated inositol-requiring-1α (IRE1α) nor phosphorylated PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) increased, suggesting that Xbp1 expression is induced by an ER stress-independent mechanism. The active form of XBP1(S) protein was increased by GH administration and was followed by an increased ER-associated dnaJ protein 4 (ERdj4) mRNA level. XBP1(S) protein levels were predominantly identified in male rat livers with variations among individuals similar to those of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B), suggesting that XBP1(S) protein levels are regulated by the sex-dependent secretary pattern of GH. The GH signaling pathway to induce Xbp1 mRNA was examined in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells. GH induced the phosphorylation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) following extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Taken together, the results indicated that XBP1 is activated by GH in rat liver in a sexually dimorphic manner via ERK and C/EBPβ pathway.

  • Hiromi Yamaguchi, Akira Shimatsu, Akifumi Okayama, Takahiro Sato
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 201-210
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 13, 2019
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    This post-marketing surveillance is to investigate the long-term safety and effectiveness of the growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant, which is used in patients with acromegaly in routine clinical practice. This surveillance included all cases treated with pegvisomant during the study period from the start of marketing (June 5, 2007) to December 2015. Data for 251 patients with acromegaly treated with pegvisomant were collected from 119 institutions nationwide in Japan. Eighty-five patients received pegvisomant monotherapy throughout their treatment, while 165 patients were treated with somatostatin analogue or dopamine agonist in combination with pegvisomant. Mean dose of pegvisomant was 10.6 ± 6.1 mg/day in the entire treatment period (except for initial loading dose). The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 35.6% (89/250). No new safety concerns related to long-term treatment were observed. The major investigation items of incidence of abnormal liver function and tumor enlargement were 16.0% (40/250), and 5.2% (13/250) respectively. Efficacy at the final evaluation point was 96.4% (217/225) based on the overall clinical judgement of attending physicians, and efficacy in each observation period was over 94%. Improvement in IGF-I levels and clinical symptoms scores were also observed by comparing the data at baseline with each observation point during treatment. IGF-I normalization rate was 68.2% at 5 years. Pegvisomant monotherapy showed similar improvement here as well. These results suggest that long-term treatment with pegvisomant is effective in clinical practice.

  • Takahiro Fukaishi, Isao Minami, Seizaburo Masuda, Yasutaka Miyachi, Ka ...
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 211-218
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 08, 2019
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    We herein report a case of a 28-year-old man with generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome treated by leptin replacement. He showed symptoms of generalized lipodystrophy around onset of puberty. His body mass index was 11.9 kg/m2, and he had a short stature, birdlike facies, dental crowding due to micrognathia, partial graying and loss of hair, and a high-pitched voice, all of which are typical features of the progeroid syndrome. Laboratory examinations and abdominal ultrasonography revealed diabetes mellitus, insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia, decreased serum leptin levels (2.2 ng/mL), elevated serum hepatobiliary enzyme levels and fatty liver. Whole exome sequencing revealed de novo heterozygous LMNA p.T10I mutation, indicating generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome, which is a newly identified subtype of atypical progeroid syndrome characterized by severe metabolic abnormalities. Daily injection of metreleptin [1.2 mg (0.04 mg/kg)/day] was started. Metreleptin treatment significantly improved his diabetes from HbA1c 11.0% to 5.4% in six months. It also elevated serum testosterone levels. Elevated serum testosterone levels persisted even 1 year after the initiation of metreleptin treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Japanese case report of generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome. Furthermore, we evaluated short and long-term effectiveness of leptin replacement on generalized lipodystrophy by monitoring metabolic and endocrine profiles.

  • Saya Nagasawa, Kazuhiro Ikeda, Kuniko Horie-Inoue, Sho Sato, Satoru Ta ...
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 219-229
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2019
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    Supplementary material

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate among gynecological cancers. Gene mutations are involved in the carcinogenesis, metastasis, and therapeutic response in ovarian cancer. However, the variety and proportion of gene mutation is not fully analyzed in Japanese ovarian cancer patients, especially, in those with recurrent tumors. In the present study, RNA-sequencing was performed for 32 clinical ovarian specimens obtained from 24 Japanese patients (24 primary cancer specimens and 8 recurrent specimens paired with corresponding primary cancer specimens). Mutations in 24 primary specimens were analyzed by comparing the sequence data mapped on RefSeq genes with those in the public online databases BRCA Exchange, COSMIC, ClinVar, and cBioportal. Mutations were observed in TP53 in 16 specimens (67%), BRCA1 in 9 (38%), BRCA2 in 13 (54%), ARID1A in 3 (13%), PIK3CA in 2 (8%), KRAS in 1 (4%), PTEN in 1 (4%), and CTNNB1 in 1 (4%), excluding synonymous mutations. Among those identified muations, 13 of 14 mutations in TP53, 10 of 11 mutations of BRCA1, 10 of 23 mutation positions of BRCA2, none of 7 mutations of ARID1A, 1 mutation of PIK3CA, and 1 mutation of CTNNB1 were consistent with those reported in the public online databases; however, the other mutations identified were novel. Comparison between matched-paired specimens of primary and recurrent tumors revealed the changes of mutational status in expressed RNAs. RNA-sequencing-based mutation analysis will be useful to reveal ethnic differences of gene mutations in ovarian cancer and to understand the contribution of gene mutations to recurrence.

  • Nariaki Fujimoto, Mutsumi Matsuu-Matsuyama, Masahiro Nakashima
    Type: Original
    2020 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 231-240
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2019
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    Exposure to ionized radiation in childhood has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of thyroid cancer and possibly for other thyroid disorders. However, the effects of neonatal radiation exposure on thyroid morphology and functions have never been explored despite its potential importance. One-week-old male Wistar rats were subjected to cervical X-irradiation at 6 and 12 Gy. Animals were examined at the ages of 2, 8 and 18 weeks old. For comparison, 8-week-old rats were cervically X-irradiated at the same doses. Thyroid histology was examined by computer-assisted microscopy to measure areas of colloid and epithelium of thyroid follicles as well as epithelial heights. In rats that received cervical X-irradiation at 1 week old, the colloid size of thyroid follicles decreased at the age of 8 weeks old in a radiation-dose dependent manner. This morphological change was persistently found at 18 weeks old. There were no significant differences in serum total T3 or T4 levels among the groups. Serum TSH levels increased significantly in 8-week-old rats neonatally X-irradiated. Thyroglobulin (Tg) mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in the neonatally-irradiated group while thyroid peroxidase mRNA express increased at 18 weeks old. None of these changes were observed in the rats X-irradiated at 8 weeks old. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated that neonatal rat thyroid was sensitive to ionized radiation, developing specific morphological changes characterized by smaller thyroid follicles along with changes in serum TSH levels and Tg expressions in the thyroid tissue.

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