This review evaluated the risk of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (Dpp-4i). The MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Library databases and web of science were used to search the effects of Dpp-4i on rheumatoid arthritis in patients with type 2 diabetes from inception to 7 September, 2020. We included studies that met the following criteria:(i) A randomized controlled trial (RCT), prospective or retrospective cohort study examining the relationship between Dpp-4i and rheumatoid arthritis. Exclusion criteria included the following: Reviews and researches related to other diseases or subjects; and studies without data on the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Risk of Bias table contained in Review Manager 5.3 and Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) were used for quality assessment of included RCT and observational studies separately. Meta-analysis was used to estimate the risk of disease. We conducted a subgroup analysis of duration of follow-up, adjusted (adjusted RR or unadjusted RR), sample size and study design. A total of 10 independent studies assessing 1,420,414 patients were included in this analysis. In this meta-analysis, we found that there was nonsignificant increase of rheumatoid arthritis with Dpp-4 inhibitor exposure (RR 0.96, 95%CI (0.69–1.32)). Our results revealed that Dpp-4 inhibitors do not seem to increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term follow-up monitoring is necessary.