Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a highly heterogeneous condition, and its underlying causes remain to be clarified in a large fraction of patients. Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are multisystem diseases caused by mutations of a number of genes involved in N-glycosylation or O-glycosylation, and the most frequent form is PMM2-CDG (alias, CDG-Ia) resulting from biallelic mutations in PMM2 encoding phosphomannomutase-2 involved in N-glycosylation. Here, we examined a 46,XX Japanese female with syndromic POI accompanied by an undetectable level of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). Whole exome sequencing identified biallelic pathogenic mutations of PMM2 (a novel c.34G>C:p.(Asp12His) of maternal origin and a recurrent c.310C>G:p.(Leu104Val) of paternal origin) (NM_000303.3), and N-glycosylation studies detected asialotransferrin and disialotransferrin characteristic of PMM2-CDG, in addition to normally glycosylated tetrasialotransferrin. Clinical assessment showed cerebellar hypotrophy, which is a fairly characteristic and highly prevalent feature in PMM2-CDG, together with multiple non-specific features reported in PMM2-CDG such as characteristic face, intellectual disability, skeletal abnormalities, and low blood antithrombin III value. These results including the undetectable level of serum AMH, in conjunction with previously reported findings suggestive of the critical role of glycosylation in oocyte development and function, imply that PMM2-CDG almost invariably leads to POI primarily because of the defective oogenesis and/or oocyte-dependent early folliculogenesis rather than the compromised bioactivity of FSH/LH with defective glycosylation. Thus, it is recommended to examine PMM2 in patients with syndromic POI, especially in those with cerebellar ataxia/hypotrophy.