2013 年 2013 巻 33 号 p. 1-32
As is said “Favorite Brussels phrase: global player”, the EU has endeavored to increase its own voice and influence in the world. In this paper, I will inquire into the image of the EU as a Global Actor mainly from the standpoint of the development of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). I will inspect 4 requirements for a global actor as followed:
Firstly, I will examine the problem of consistency. Since 1970 when the European Political Cooperation (EPC) started, the EU has paid attention for consistency between the EC/EU and EPC/CFSP to avoid structural dichotomy and inconsistency among various external policies of the EC/EU. At last under the Lisbon Treaty the EU succeeded in abolishing the structure of so called‘three pillars’. And yet, by the same treaty, EU acquired legal personality for the first time as the natural result of abolishment of the pillars. But I feel there remains some dichotomy even now.
Secondly, as for the identity of the EU, Charlotte Bretherton/John Vogler point out two aspects: the EU as a value-based community and the EU as fortress (an exclusive actor). On the context, since 1990’s, the EU has developed the European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI). On the one side, the EU works for a civilian or normative power and aims to promote European values such as peace, liberty, democracy, rule of law and so on. On the context, in the field of ESDP/CSDP, the EU attaches importance to the image of a civilian power on the rules of ‘Berlin plus’ and ‘Petersberg tasks’ which have been established as a product of compromise between the EU and the USA.
On the other hand, the EU has an aspect of ‘fortress Europe’. Sometimes the EU demonstrates its identity, purposely struggling for American values such as the Kyoto Protocol, abolishment of death penalty, the International Criminal Court, the Iraq war and so on.
Thirdly, as for the institutional aspec of the CFSP/CSDP, the EU set up the post of the high representative for the CFSP since the Amsterdam Treaty. Under the Lisbon Treaty the EU strengthened its role essentially as a EU foreign minister, and the EU established the European External Action Service (EEAS) which is equivalent to the EU Foreign Ministry. But the EEAS is not free from several restraints.
Fourthly, as for the civilian and military operations under the ESDP/CSDP, the EU has deployed 31missioins sihce 2003. I will point out several characteristics among them.
Finally I will refer to the future of the CFSP/CSDP. According to Charlotte Bretherton/JohnVogler, lately ‘a new debate has arisen precisely, worrying that the EU might step forward to some kind of a military alliance as a result of the development of the military missions under the CSDP. But the CSDP is not intended to be engaged in territorial defence. The EU never aims to have an integrated European army, but to contribute to the settlement of conflicts as a civilian power through the Petersberg Tasks under the framework of Berlin plus. I am sure there is almost no possibility the EU missions may lead the EU to any kind of a military entity.