2013 年 2013 巻 33 号 p. 163-189
The purpose of EPC, launched in 1970, was to coordinate foreign policies among the Member States of the European Community by ensuring mutual understanding on the international problems through regular exchange of information and consultations, strengthening their solidarity by harmonizing their views….
The question is why the need to strengthen their solidarity through mutual understanding among the Six arose in the midst of détente? Moreover, why did it happen almost simultaneously with the achievement of British accession to the EC? The reasons can be considered along the two aspects: the way EPC was taking shape under the circumstances of détente, and the way British diplomatic attitude was involved in the formation and the progress of EPC.
It is obvious that both aspects were closely interrelated, and promoted by the two different forces of détente, between the two Superpowers, and between the East and the West on the European continent. Because of American indifference toward the problems of Europe, the UK and the Six became active in the formation of European détente where they put emphasis on the Western value of the freedom of movement, against the Eastern insistence on the status quo. As a result, EPC became a driving force in promoting European détente.
In contrast to the general understanding of British negative attitude toward supranational European integration, this study presents a different view that the UK is a positive and active participant rather than an observer in the process of European integration in the sphere of Foreign Policy as an intergovernmental character.
First, in order to discuss the formation of EPC, the failure of French attempt, early in 60s, to pursue European political framework excluding the UK, is surveyed, while Atlantic attitude of British policies are examined. Secondly, the process of convergence among the UK, France and West Germany, early in 70s, in terms of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) is examined. The process indicates the formation of Western approach, through which the importance of EPC as a vehicle of the European détente policy became eminent as compared to NATO. Finally, the process of the confirmation of EPC leading to the Single European Act is surveyed. In the process, British positive approach toward the establishment of European Foreign Policy is examined by analyzing its proposal for the Policy.