2006 年 55 巻 1 号 p. 309-306,1212
Pranagnihotra (PA), the fifth chapter of the Chandogya Upanisad (ChU), was incorporated into the soteriological path in the Moksadharma (Moks) chapter of the Mahabharata 12. PA of Moks further influenced the Mahanarayana Upanisad (MNU), and PA of MNU in turn influenced the Baudhayanadharmasutra (BDh). Mental sacrifice described in Agnihotra in the classical Upanisad became an actual ritual and many renouncers began to practice it. Moks affirmed the householder's life (grhastha), and incorporated the life of renouncer as the fourth asrama. Proto-BDh used the mantra of MNU in the grhastha's life. On the other hand deutero-BDh was taken into PA in the ritual of renouncing the world. As mention above, the asrama based on PA was completed to Manusmrti.