2021 年 15 巻 3 号 p. 301-312
Digital image phenotyping has become popular in plant research. Plants are complex in shape, and occlusion can often occur. Three-dimensional (3D) data are expected to measure the morphological traits of plants with higher accuracy. Plants have organs with flat and/or narrow shapes and similar component structures are repeated. Therefore, it is difficult to construct an accurate 3D model by applying methods developed for industrial materials and architecture. Here, we review noncontact and all-around 3D modeling and configuration of camera systems to measure the morphological traits of plants in terms of system composition, accuracy, cost, and usability. Typical noncontact 3D measurement methods can be roughly classified into active and passive methods. We describe their advantages and disadvantages. Structure-from-motion/multi-view stereo (SfM/MVS), a passive method, is the most frequently used measurement method for plants. It is described in terms of “forward intersection” and “backward resection.” We recently developed a novel SfM/MVS approach by mixing the forward and backward methods, and we provide a brief overview of our approach in this paper. While various fields are adopting 3D model construction, nonexpert users struggle to use them and end up selecting inadequate methods, which lead to model failure. We hope that this review will help users who are considering starting to construct and measure 3D models.