2006 年 21 巻 p. 51-76,214
Using primarily the 2004 American National Election Study data, this article clarifies how independent leaners differ from pure independents and weak partisans. In turnout and presidential election choice, leaners differ greatly from pure independents but approximate weak partisans. Pure independents are more likely than leaners to be Catholic. Effects of other social backgrounds are not symmetrical around pure independents. In regard to political attitudes, affective attachments to political parties exerted the most consistent effect on partisanship and independence. Leaners are more affectively attached than pure independents to their favored parties, and pure independents are more likely than leaners to have equally negative feelings toward the two parties. Weak partisans are more affectively attached than leaners to their favored parties. Other political attitudes have asymmetrical effects.