2017 年 26 巻 4 号 p. 233-236
There are two domestic camel species: the dromedary and the Bactrian camel. The distribution of the two domestic camel species is clearly differs, although they meet at the latitude corresponding to an average temperature of around 21°C. The Bactrian occurs in the eastern area of Afro-Eurasia continent; from Mongolia to Central Asia. While, the dromedary inhabits western area; from the Arabian Peninsula to the Sahara desert. In Kazakhstan, they keep both species and hybrid of them. The dromedary is dominant in the eastern Kazakhstan, around Almaty; and the Bactrian is prevalent in north-western part, around Aktobe. In our study, we found that nowadays, the geographic distribution of both camel species is greatly determined by the climatic factors; for instance the one-humped camel could be breed in environment where the annual average air temperature is above 10°C and the record low air temperature dips minus 38°C or above. It is difficult to keep one-humped camels in the northern region to the 45°N altitude. Also, economic demand is important factor for the geographic distribution of both camel species. Nowadays, the dromedary is dominant especially in Almaty region despite its severe climatic conditions. Because, Almaty is a largest economic center in Kazakhstan and in another side, the dromedary produce much more milk than Bactrian.